Abstract

We demonstrate inorganic halide perovskite quantum-dots-based white light-emitting diodes via three different geometries, including liquid, solid, and hybrid types. Problems of fast anion exchange and aggregation in the cases of liquid- and solid-type devices are discussed in detail and push us to move towards the fabrication of a hybrid-type device structure. The experiment results illustrate that a hybrid-type device has the highest luminance efficiency (51 lm/W) and a wide color gamut (122% of NTSC and 91% of Rec. 2020). Therefore, we conclude that a hybrid-type device can provide an outstanding color gamut for high color gamut display applications.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (8)

F. Fang, W. Chen, Y. Li, H. C. Liu, M. Mei, R. Zhang, J. J. Hao, M. Mikita, W. Q. Cao, R. K. Pan, K. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Employing polar solvent controlled ionization in precursors for synthesis of high-quality inorganic perovskite nanocrystals at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706000 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, H. C. Liu, R. Hu, C. F. Wang, J. J. Hao, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Targeting cooling for quantum dots in white QDs-LEDs by hexagonal boron nitride platelets with electrostatic bonding,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1801407 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Cheng, T. Y. Li, P. C. Wei, J. Yin, K. T. Ho, J. R. D. Retamal, O. F. Mohammed, and J. H. He, “Layer-edge device of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 9, 5196 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. T. Ho, S. F. Leung, T. Y. Li, P. Maity, B. Cheng, H. C. Fu, O. F. Mohammed, and J. H. He, “Surface effect on 2D hybrid perovskite crystals: perovskites using an ethanolamine organic layer as an example,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1804372 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. K. Ravi, R. A. Scheidt, A. Nag, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “To exchange or not to exchange. Suppressing anion exchange in cesium lead halide perovskites with PbSO4-oleate capping,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 1049–1055 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sadeghi, B. G. Kumar, R. Melikov, M. M. Aria, H. B. Jalali, and S. Nizamoglu, “Quantum dot white LEDs with high luminous efficiency,” Optica 5, 793–802 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. C. Wang, Z. Bao, H. Y. Tsai, A. C. Tang, and R. S. Liu, “Perovskite quantum dots and their application in light-emitting diodes,” Small 14, 1702433 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, N. Sui, X. Bai, Y. Zhang, Q. Rice, F. J. Seo, Q. B. Zhang, V. L. Colvin, and W. W. Yu, “Emission recovery and stability enhancement of inorganic perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9, 4166–4173 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

S. Demchyshyn, J. M. Roemer, H. Groiss, H. Heilbrunner, C. Ulbricht, D. Apaydin, A. Bohm, U. Rutt, F. Bertram, G. Hesser, M. C. Scharber, N. S. Sariciftci, B. Nickel, S. Bauer, E. D. Glowacki, and M. Kaltenbrunner, “Confining metal-halide perovskites in nanoporous thin films,” Sci. Adv. 3, e1700738 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Xiao, L. F. Zhao, N. L. Tran, Y. Lin, S. H. Silver, R. A. Kerner, N. Yao, A. Kahn, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Mixed-halide perovskites with stabilized bandgaps,” Nano Lett. 17, 6863–6869 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. L. Dai, Y. Z. Deng, X. G. Peng, and Y. Z. Jin, “Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes for large-area displays: towards the dawn of commercialization,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1607022 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

S. J. Yoon, S. Draguta, J. S. Manser, O. Sharia, W. F. Schneider, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Tracking iodide and bromide ion segregation in mixed halide lead perovskites during photoirradiation,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 290–296 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. Q. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 063106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kim, H. Cho, and T. W. Lee, “Metal halide perovskite light emitters,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 11694–11702 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ananthakumar, J. R. Kumar, and S. M. Babu, “Cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite quantum dots-synthesis, properties, and applications: a review of their present status,” J. Photon. Energy 6, 042001 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Li, Y. Wu, S. L. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Z. Song, and H. B. Zeng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Swarnkar, A. R. Marshall, E. M. Sanehira, B. D. Chernomordik, D. T. Moore, J. A. Christians, T. Chakrabarti, and J. M. Luther, “Quantum dot-induced phase stabilization of alpha-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics,” Science 354, 92–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, X. J. Yu, B. F. Shang, Y. P. Ma, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dot phosphor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. Wang, S. Y. Lin, A. C. Tang, B. P. Singh, H. C. Tong, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. L. Tsai, and R. S. Liu, “Mesoporous silica particles integrated with all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum-dot nanocomposites (MP-PQDs) with high stability and wide color gamut used for backlight display,” Angew. Chem. 55, 7924–7929 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

G. Nedelcu, L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, M. J. Grotevent, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Fast anion-exchange in highly luminescent nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I),” Nano Lett. 15, 5635–5640 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 10276–10281 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Dou, A. B. Wong, Y. Yu, M. Lai, N. Kornienko, S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, C. G. Bischak, J. Ma, T. Ding, N. S. Ginsberg, L.-W. Wang, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. Yang, “Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites,” Science 349, 1518–1521 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15, 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Yang, Z. H. Lin, K. C. Pradel, L. Lin, X. H. Li, X. N. Wen, J. H. He, and Z. L. Wang, “Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors,” ACS Nano 9, 901–907 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Yang, L. Lin, F. Yi, X. H. Li, K. C. Pradel, Y. L. Zi, C. I. Wu, J. H. He, Y. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, “A flexible, stretchable and shape-adaptive approach for versatile energy conversion and self-powered biomedical monitoring,” Adv. Mater. 27, 3817–3824 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. Y. Tai, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, “Wavelength-shifted yellow electroluminescence of Si quantum-dot embedded 20-pair SiNx/SiOx superlattice by ostwald ripening effect,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6600110 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Yuan, J. Zhang, G. L. Liang, and X. R. Yang, “Rapid fluorescent detection of neurogenin3 by CdTe quantum dot aggregation,” Analyst 137, 1775–1778 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4068–4073 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Martyniuk and A. Rogalski, “Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors: status and outlook,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 89–120 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, “Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting-diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370, 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Accornero, S.

Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 10276–10281 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akkerman, Q. A.

Q. A. Akkerman, V. D’Innocenzo, S. Accornero, A. Scarpellini, A. Petrozza, M. Prato, and L. Manna, “Tuning the optical properties of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals by anion exchange reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 10276–10281 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

L. Dou, A. B. Wong, Y. Yu, M. Lai, N. Kornienko, S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, C. G. Bischak, J. Ma, T. Ding, N. S. Ginsberg, L.-W. Wang, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. Yang, “Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites,” Science 349, 1518–1521 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Light-emitting-diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370, 354–357 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ananthakumar, S.

S. Ananthakumar, J. R. Kumar, and S. M. Babu, “Cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite quantum dots-synthesis, properties, and applications: a review of their present status,” J. Photon. Energy 6, 042001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Apaydin, D.

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Hsu, S. C.

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Jang, E.

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E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3076–3080 (2010).
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E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3076–3080 (2010).
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S. J. Yoon, S. Draguta, J. S. Manser, O. Sharia, W. F. Schneider, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Tracking iodide and bromide ion segregation in mixed halide lead perovskites during photoirradiation,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 290–296 (2016).
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S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
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E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3076–3080 (2010).
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K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
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K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
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K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
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E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3076–3080 (2010).
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V. K. Ravi, R. A. Scheidt, A. Nag, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “To exchange or not to exchange. Suppressing anion exchange in cesium lead halide perovskites with PbSO4-oleate capping,” ACS Energy Lett. 3, 1049–1055 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. J. Yoon, S. Draguta, J. S. Manser, O. Sharia, W. F. Schneider, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Tracking iodide and bromide ion segregation in mixed halide lead perovskites during photoirradiation,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 290–296 (2016).
[Crossref]

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H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

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K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
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L. Dou, A. B. Wong, Y. Yu, M. Lai, N. Kornienko, S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, C. G. Bischak, J. Ma, T. Ding, N. S. Ginsberg, L.-W. Wang, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. Yang, “Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites,” Science 349, 1518–1521 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
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Lee, E. K.

K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
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Lee, S. J.

K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W. J. Joo, E. Jang, T. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. W.

Y. H. Kim, H. Cho, and T. W. Lee, “Metal halide perovskite light emitters,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 11694–11702 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

H. C. Wang, S. Y. Lin, A. C. Tang, B. P. Singh, H. C. Tong, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. L. Tsai, and R. S. Liu, “Mesoporous silica particles integrated with all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum-dot nanocomposites (MP-PQDs) with high stability and wide color gamut used for backlight display,” Angew. Chem. 55, 7924–7929 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, T. Y.

K. T. Ho, S. F. Leung, T. Y. Li, P. Maity, B. Cheng, H. C. Fu, O. F. Mohammed, and J. H. He, “Surface effect on 2D hybrid perovskite crystals: perovskites using an ethanolamine organic layer as an example,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1804372 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Cheng, T. Y. Li, P. C. Wei, J. Yin, K. T. Ho, J. R. D. Retamal, O. F. Mohammed, and J. H. He, “Layer-edge device of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 9, 5196 (2018).
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Li, X. H.

P. K. Yang, L. Lin, F. Yi, X. H. Li, K. C. Pradel, Y. L. Zi, C. I. Wu, J. H. He, Y. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, “A flexible, stretchable and shape-adaptive approach for versatile energy conversion and self-powered biomedical monitoring,” Adv. Mater. 27, 3817–3824 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Yang, Z. H. Lin, K. C. Pradel, L. Lin, X. H. Li, X. N. Wen, J. H. He, and Z. L. Wang, “Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors,” ACS Nano 9, 901–907 (2015).
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Li, X. M.

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H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

H. Y. Tai, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, “Wavelength-shifted yellow electroluminescence of Si quantum-dot embedded 20-pair SiNx/SiOx superlattice by ostwald ripening effect,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6600110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

S. C. Hsu, L. A. Ke, H. C. Lin, T. M. Chen, H. Y. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, H. C. Kuo, and C. C. Lin, “Fabrication of a highly stable white light-emitting diode with multiple-layer colloidal quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 2000109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, D. H. Hsieh, X. Y. Chen, H. M. P. Chen, T. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, C. H. Chen, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold,” Photon. Res. 5, 411–416 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. H. Tu, X. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lai, C. C. Lin, H. M. Chen, P. C. Yu, H. F. Meng, G. C. Chi, K. Honjo, T. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Fabrication of flexible white light-emitting diodes from photoluminescent polymer materials with excellent color quality,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35279–35286 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Sher, C. H. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Huang, K. J. Chen, J. R. Li, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tu, C. C. Fua, and H. C. Kuo, “A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode,” Nanoscale 8, 1117–1122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

P. K. Yang, Z. H. Lin, K. C. Pradel, L. Lin, X. H. Li, X. N. Wen, J. H. He, and Z. L. Wang, “Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors,” ACS Nano 9, 901–907 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Yang, L. Lin, F. Yi, X. H. Li, K. C. Pradel, Y. L. Zi, C. I. Wu, J. H. He, Y. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, “A flexible, stretchable and shape-adaptive approach for versatile energy conversion and self-powered biomedical monitoring,” Adv. Mater. 27, 3817–3824 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. Y.

H. C. Wang, S. Y. Lin, A. C. Tang, B. P. Singh, H. C. Tong, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. L. Tsai, and R. S. Liu, “Mesoporous silica particles integrated with all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum-dot nanocomposites (MP-PQDs) with high stability and wide color gamut used for backlight display,” Angew. Chem. 55, 7924–7929 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Z. G. Xiao, L. F. Zhao, N. L. Tran, Y. Lin, S. H. Silver, R. A. Kerner, N. Yao, A. Kahn, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Mixed-halide perovskites with stabilized bandgaps,” Nano Lett. 17, 6863–6869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

H. Y. Tai, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, “Wavelength-shifted yellow electroluminescence of Si quantum-dot embedded 20-pair SiNx/SiOx superlattice by ostwald ripening effect,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6600110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. H.

P. K. Yang, Z. H. Lin, K. C. Pradel, L. Lin, X. H. Li, X. N. Wen, J. H. He, and Z. L. Wang, “Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors,” ACS Nano 9, 901–907 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

F. Fang, W. Chen, Y. Li, H. C. Liu, M. Mei, R. Zhang, J. J. Hao, M. Mikita, W. Q. Cao, R. K. Pan, K. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Employing polar solvent controlled ionization in precursors for synthesis of high-quality inorganic perovskite nanocrystals at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1706000 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, H. C. Liu, R. Hu, C. F. Wang, J. J. Hao, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Targeting cooling for quantum dots in white QDs-LEDs by hexagonal boron nitride platelets with electrostatic bonding,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1801407 (2018).
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B. Xie, R. Hu, X. J. Yu, B. F. Shang, Y. P. Ma, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dot phosphor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1115–1118 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Process flow of perovskite QDs-based WLEDs: (a) liquid type, (b) solid type, and (c) hybrid type.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. UV–Vis absorption and PL emission spectrum of (a) CsPbBr3 green and (b) CsPbBr1.2I1.8 red PQDs; the insets show photographs of green and red PQDs. (c) EL spectrum of liquid-type LEDs, which shows an intermediate stage due to mixing of red and green PQDs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) EL spectrum and (b) color gamut on CIE1931 for the solid-type WLED.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) EL spectrum and (b) color gamut on CIE1931 for the hybrid-type WLED.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Current versus luminance efficiency of solid- and hybrid-type WLEDs.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Surface temperature images of WLED. (a) Temperature versus current plot for two different QDs devices. Thermal images for (b) solid type and (c) hybrid type at 100 mA.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Emission spectra of (a) solid-type and (b) hybrid-type WLEDs under various operation durations.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Stability of solid- and hybrid-type WLEDs.

Equations (1)

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