Abstract

Near-infrared germanium (Ge) photodetectors monolithically integrated on top of silicon-on-insulator substrates are universally regarded as key enablers towards chip-scale nanophotonics, with applications ranging from sensing and health monitoring to object recognition and optical communications. In this work, we report on the high-data-rate performance pin waveguide photodetectors made of a lateral hetero-structured silicon-Ge-silicon (Si-Ge-Si) junction operating under low reverse bias at 1.55 μm. The pin photodetector integration scheme considerably eases device manufacturing and is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. In particular, the hetero-structured Si-Ge-Si photodetectors show efficiency-bandwidth products of 9  GHz at 1  V and 30  GHz at 3  V, with a leakage dark current as low as 150  nA, allowing superior signal detection of high-speed data traffic. A bit-error rate of 109 is achieved for conventional 10 Gbps, 20 Gbps, and 25 Gbps data rates, yielding optical power sensitivities of 13.85  dBm, 12.70  dBm, and 11.25  dBm, respectively. This demonstration opens up new horizons towards cost-effective Ge pin waveguide photodetectors that combine fast device operation at low voltages with standard semiconductor fabrication processes, as desired for reliable on-chip architectures in next-generation nanophotonics integrated circuits.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2018 (6)

X. Chen, M. M. Milosevic, S. Stankovic, S. Reynolds, T. Dominguez-Bucio, K. Li, D. J. Thomson, F. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “The emergence of silicon photonics as a flexible technology platform,” Proc. IEEE 106, 2101–2116 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. H. Schmid, Í. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures for silicon photonic devices,” Proc. IEEE 106, 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7, 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. Marshall, M. Hsu, Z. Wang, B. Kunert, C. Koos, and D. Van Thourhout, “Heterogeneous integration on silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 106, 2258–2269 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic, D. Huang, P. Pintus, M. A. Tran, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integrated circuits using heterogeneous integration on silicon,” Proc. IEEE 106, 2246–2257 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, W. Yao, L. Shen, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “−1  V 67  GHz bandwidth Si-contacted germanium waveguide p-i-n photodetector for optical links at 56  Gbps and beyond,” Opt. Express 24, 4622–4631 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, M. Nedeljkovic, H. Wang, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Towards a fully functional integrated photonic-electronic platform via a single SiGe growth step,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19425 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18, 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (6)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. G. Kim, K.-S. Jang, and G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10  Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ ∼ 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18, 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafilha, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Delinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J.-M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Roland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: a technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigné, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-xGex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5738–5746 (1988).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Al Qubaisi, K.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7, 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Virot, D. Benedikovic, B. Szelag, C. Alonso-Ramos, B. Karakus, J.-M. Hartmann, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, Ch. Baudot, F. Boeuf, J.-M. Fédéli, C. Kopp, and L. Vivien, “Integrated waveguide PIN photodiodes exploiting lateral Si/Ge/Si heterojunction,” Opt. Express 25, 19487–19496 (2017).
[Crossref]

Antoniadis, D. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5, 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafilha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36  GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Transversal schematics (x-y plane) of the pin photodetector with a lateral Si-Ge-Si heterojunction architecture. Inset: electric field profile of the fundamental TE-polarized optical mode in a 0.260-μm-thick and 1-μm-wide hetero-structured photodetector. (b) Longitudinal view (y-z plane) of the optical intensity distribution in the 1-μm-wide and 40-μm-long butt-waveguide-coupled pin Si-Ge-Si photodetector, as obtained from 3D FDTD simulations. The fundamental TE mode is injected from the Si waveguide on the left-hand side.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Static current-voltage (IV) characteristics of 1-μm-wide by 40-μm-long hetero-structured pin photodetector in dark- and light-illuminated states. Inset: leakage dark-current evolution as a function of device junction area. Photodetectors were biased at 1  V. (b) Photo-responsivity as a function of the reverse voltage for different device lengths. (c) Quantum efficiency as a function of the device length under 0.5  V reverse bias. The shadowed region denotes a range of quantum efficiencies for an estimated power uncertainty of ±0.24  dB.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Small-signal RF measurements of the S21 responses of the 1-μm-wide×40-μm-long hetero-structured Si-Ge-Si photodetector, under different bias conditions in a range from 0 V to 4  V. Inset: S21 RF traces of different length Si-Ge-Si pin waveguide photodetectors biased at 1  V. (b) Opto-electrical bandwidth versus reverse bias for different device lengths. (c) Product of the quantum efficiency by the RF bandwidth versus reverse bias for Si-Ge-Si pin waveguide photodetectors with different lengths. The shadowed regions denote ranges of efficiency-bandwidth product for an estimated power uncertainty of ±0.24  dB.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Evolution of eye diagram apertures within a low-reverse-bias range at 10 Gbps, 20 Gbps, 25 Gbps, 28 Gbps, 32 Gbps, and 40 Gbps. Here, x [ps/div] and y [mV/div] correspond to the horizontal and vertical scope axes within the particular measurement setting. 1-μm×40-μm (Ge width×Ge length) Si-Ge-Si photodetector.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Bit-error-rate measurements of the Si-Ge-Si pin waveguide photodetector as a function of the input optical power. BER assessments performed (a) at 10 Gbps under low-reverse-bias states and (b) at 10 Gbps, 20 Gbps, and 25 Gbps, all biased at 3  V. 1-μm×40-μm (Ge width×Ge length) Si-Ge-Si photodetector.