Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated a type of tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-doped fiber (TDF) laser passively mode locked by using an ultralong nonlinear optical loop mirror. The total cavity length was 3.03  km, the longest ever built for a TDF laser to our best knowledge, which resulted in an ultralarge anomalous dispersion over 200  ps2 around the emission wavelength. The produced h-shaped pulse can operate either in a fundamental or in a high-order harmonic mode-locking (HML) state depending on pump power and intra-cavity polarization state (PS). The pulse duration, no matter of the operation state, was tunable with pump power. However, pulse breaking and self-organizing occurred, resulting in high-order HML, when the pump power increased above a threshold. At a fixed pump power, the order of HML was switchable from one to another by manipulating the PS. Switching from the 8th up to the 48th order of HML was achieved with a fixed pump power of 4.15  W. Our results revealed the detailed evolution and switching characteristics of the HML and individual pulse envelope with respect to both the pump power and PS. We have also discussed in detail the mechanisms of both the h-shaped pulse generation and the switching of its HML. This contribution would be helpful for further in-depth study on the underlying dynamics of long-duration particular-envelope pulses with ultralarge anomalous dispersion and ultralong roundtrip time.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2018 (8)

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-time observation of the buildup of soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Luo, “Coexistence of bound soliton and harmonic mode-locking soliton in an ultrafast fiber laser based on MoS2-deposited microfiber photonic device,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16, 020008 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Shang, X. Li, Z. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Han, and J. Liu, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance in an Yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 4932–4935 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Dissipative soliton resonances in a mode-locked holmium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1699–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43, 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, F. Liu, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “High repetition rate gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser at 2.103 μm pumped by h-shaped mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser at 1.985 μm,” Opt. Express 26, 26485–26494 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. Lyu, H. Shi, C. Wei, H. Li, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance pulses in a fiber ring laser at different values of anomalous dispersion,” Photon. Res. 5, 612–616 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Semaan, A. Niang, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in an anomalous dispersion passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14, 055401 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (6)

2014 (2)

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Zhang, Y. Meng, and Y. Hao, “Harmonic mode locking counterparts of dark pulse and dark-bright pulse pairs,” Opt. Express 21, 8409–8416 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, and P. St.J. Russell, “Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38, 561–563 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 11776–11781 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Elsevier, 2013).

Akhmediev, N.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arif, R.

Bahloul, F.

Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bindra, K. S.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Braham, F. B.

Cao, G.

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, T. H.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chouli, S.

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-time observation of the buildup of soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dhanabalan, S. C.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A.

A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Fu, X. Q.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
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L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
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B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
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J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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Kang, M. S.

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A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
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A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
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Li, D.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
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Y. Lyu, H. Shi, C. Wei, H. Li, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance pulses in a fiber ring laser at different values of anomalous dispersion,” Photon. Res. 5, 612–616 (2017).
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R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. F.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
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J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
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X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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H. Luo, F. Liu, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “High repetition rate gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser at 2.103 μm pumped by h-shaped mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser at 1.985 μm,” Opt. Express 26, 26485–26494 (2018).
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Y. Lyu, H. Shi, C. Wei, H. Li, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance pulses in a fiber ring laser at different values of anomalous dispersion,” Photon. Res. 5, 612–616 (2017).
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L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
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J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Dissipative soliton resonances in a mode-locked holmium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1699–1702 (2018).
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J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43, 247–250 (2018).
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J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
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Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
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R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Lu, S.

Luo, A.

Luo, H.

Luo, S.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
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Luo, Z.

Lyu, Y.

Ma, C.

Man, W. S.

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
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Meng, Y.

Meng, Y. C.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
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Peng, J.

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Ren, X.

Rozhin, A.

Ruan, S.

J. Zhao, D. Ouyang, Z. Zheng, M. Liu, X. Ren, C. Li, S. Ruan, and W. Xie, “100 W dissipative soliton resonances from a thulium-doped double-clad all-fiber-format MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24, 12072–12081 (2016).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S. C.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St.J.

Salhi, M.

G. Semaan, A. Niang, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in an anomalous dispersion passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14, 055401 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Semaan, F. B. Braham, J. Fourmont, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, and F. Sanchez, “10 μJ dissipative soliton resonance square pulse in a dual amplifier figure-of-eight double-clad Er:Yb mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4767–4770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, F.

G. Semaan, A. Niang, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in an anomalous dispersion passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14, 055401 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Semaan, F. B. Braham, J. Fourmont, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, and F. Sanchez, “10 μJ dissipative soliton resonance square pulse in a dual amplifier figure-of-eight double-clad Er:Yb mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4767–4770 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, F. Amrani, A. Dmitriev, K. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Competition and coexistence of ultrashort pulses in passive mode-locked lasers under dissipative-soliton-resonance conditions,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023838 (2013).
[Crossref]

Semaan, G.

G. Semaan, A. Niang, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in an anomalous dispersion passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14, 055401 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Semaan, F. B. Braham, J. Fourmont, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, and F. Sanchez, “10 μJ dissipative soliton resonance square pulse in a dual amplifier figure-of-eight double-clad Er:Yb mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4767–4770 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Shang, W.

Sharma, S. K.

Shen, D.

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43, 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Dissipative soliton resonances in a mode-locked holmium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1699–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Shum, P.

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
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Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
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L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
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Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, P.

J. Liu, Y. Chen, P. Tang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Generation and evolution of mode-locked noise-like square-wave pulses in a large-anomalous-dispersion Er-doped ring fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 6418–6427 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Travers, J. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsang, Y. H.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S.

Wandt, D.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, D. Mao, X. Gan, L. Han, C. Ma, T. Xi, Y. Zhang, W. Shang, S. Hua, and J. Zhao, “Harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons fiber laser based on MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 205–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Kuang, L. Zhan, Z. Wang, and M. Huang, “Up to the 1552nd order passively harmonic mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2205–2208 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Wen, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wood, D.

Wu, M.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Xi, T.

Xiang, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

Xu, C.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, P. Tang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Generation and evolution of mode-locked noise-like square-wave pulses in a large-anomalous-dispersion Er-doped ring fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 6418–6427 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

Xu, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, P. G.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yao, X.

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, “Real-time observation of the buildup of soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Zhan, L.

Q. Kuang, L. Zhan, Z. Wang, and M. Huang, “Up to the 1552nd order passively harmonic mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2205–2208 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. L.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933–25942 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, P. Tang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Generation and evolution of mode-locked noise-like square-wave pulses in a large-anomalous-dispersion Er-doped ring fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 6418–6427 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Jiang, A. Luo, C. Zhao, X. Yu, W. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. M.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, Y. D. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229, 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, P. Tang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Generation and evolution of mode-locked noise-like square-wave pulses in a large-anomalous-dispersion Er-doped ring fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 6418–6427 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Jiang, A. Luo, C. Zhao, X. Yu, W. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, J. Q.

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Dissipative soliton resonances in a mode-locked holmium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1699–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43, 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933–25942 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1053–1064 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Zheng, Z.

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of gain-guided solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 53, 676–680 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8800409 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

R. Lin, Y. Wang, P. Yan, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Huang, G. Cao, and J. Duan, “Bright and dark square pulses generated from a graphene-oxide mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1500908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. Sophia, C. Zhao, C. Xu, Y. Xiang, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots as an efficient saturable absorber for bound soliton operation in an erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503310 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Dissipative soliton resonances in a mode-locked holmium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 1699–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Kuang, L. Zhan, Z. Wang, and M. Huang, “Up to the 1552nd order passively harmonic mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2205–2208 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. Shang, X. Li, Z. Yang, S. Zhang, M. Han, and J. Liu, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance in an Yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 4932–4935 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, L. Zhan, S. Luo, and Q. Shen, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of dissipative solitons in a normal-dispersion Er-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2709–2714 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Q. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, S. C. Ruan, G. L. Zhang, H. Q. Li, and Y. H. Tsang, “An L-band graphene-oxide mode-locked fiber laser delivering bright and dark pulses,” Laser Phys. 23, 075105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Semaan, A. Niang, M. Salhi, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in an anomalous dispersion passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14, 055401 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, and Y. P. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Res. (1)

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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental layout.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Pump power induced harmonic switching with the (a)–(e) pulse trains and (f)–(j) RF spectra.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Output optical spectra with different pump powers, also corresponding to different orders of HML.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pump-power-induced evolution with the single pulse envelope when the TDF laser is operated with a fundamental repetition rate.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Several pulse trains with different orders of HML switched by PS manipulation with a fixed pump power of 4.15  W.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Detailed RF characteristics with the (a) FML and (b)–(h) different orders of HML.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Detailed pulse envelope of each individual h-shaped pulse with PS-fixed pump-power-related different orders of HML.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Evolutions of pulse peak duration with respect to the (a) pump power with a fixed PS, and (b) HML order with a fixed pump power.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Average output power versus pump power for PS-induced different orders of HML.

Equations (6)

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ϕNL=2πn2λAeffP0Leff.
ΔϕNL=2πn2LeffλAeffΔP=(12α)2πn2LeffλAeffPin.
T=12α(1α)[1+cos(ΔϕNL)].
T=12α(1α)[1+cos(ΔϕNL±ΔϕFPC)].
dTd(ΔϕNL±ΔϕFPC)=2α(1α)sin(ΔϕNL±ΔϕFPC).
P1/2,peak=Ptrailing+12(PleadingPtrailing)=12(Pleading+Ptrailing).