Abstract

We demonstrate a passively mode-locked all-fiber laser incorporating a piece of graded-index multimode fiber as a mode-locking modulator based on a nonlinear multimodal interference technique, which generates two types of coexisting high-energy ultrashort pulses [i.e., the conventional soliton (CS) and the stretched pulse (SP)]. The CS with pulse energy as high as 0.38 nJ is obtained at the pump level of 130 mW. When the pump increases to 175 mW, the high-energy SP occurs at a suitable nonlinear phase bias and its pulse energy can reach 4 nJ at a 610 mW pump. The pulse durations of the generated CS and SP are 2.3 ps and 387 fs, respectively. The theory of nonlinear fiber optics, single-shot spectral measurement by the dispersive Fourier-transform technique, and simulation methods based on the Ginzburg–Landau equation are provided to characterize the laser physics and reveal the underlying principles of the generated CS and SP. A rogue wave, observed between the CS and SP regions, mirrors the laser physics behind the dynamics of generating a high-energy SP from a CS. The proposed all-fiber laser is versatile, cost-effective and easy to integrate, which provides a promising solution for high-energy pulse generation.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]

2018 (8)

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Zheng, and S. Xu, “Switchable dual-wavelength Q-switched fiber laser using multilayer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 198–203 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion femtosecond laser with a nonlinear multimodal interference-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1611–1614 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. N. Wang, F. Wang, L. Li, C. Zhao, B. Xu, S. Jin, S. Cao, and Z. Fang, “Stretched graded-index multimode optical fiber as a saturable absorber for erbium-doped fiber laser mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2078–2081 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Ahsan and G. P. Agrawal, “Graded-index solitons in multimode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3345–3348 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, G. Chen, W. Li, C. Zeng, and H. Yang, “Decaying evolution dynamics of double-pulse mode-locking,” Photon. Res. 6, 825–829 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

S. Hu, J. Yao, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gain-guided soliton fiber laser with high-quality rectangle spectrum for ultrafast time-stretch microscopy,” Opt. Express 24, 10786–10796 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

E. Nazemosadat and A. Mafi, “Nonlinear multimodal inference and saturable absorber using a short graded-index multimode optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1357–1367 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

K. Özgören and F. Ö. IIday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1296–1298 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. IIday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Ahsan, A. S.

Akhmediev, N.

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arecchi, F. T.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arif, R.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bortolozzo, U.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

Chang, W.

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, S.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Zheng, and S. Xu, “Switchable dual-wavelength Q-switched fiber laser using multilayer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 198–203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chernysheva, M.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Docherty, A.

Du, B.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Fedotov, Y.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

French, P. M. W.

P. M. W. French, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 58, 169–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
[Crossref]

Han, D. D.

Herink, G.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, P.

Horak, P.

Hu, S.

Hu, X.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

IIday, F. Ö.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. IIday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Özgören and F. Ö. IIday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1296–1298 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

Kahn, J. M.

Kobtsev, S. M.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, H.

Li, L.

Li, M.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Liang, Z.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liou, L. W.

Liu, J.

Liu, M.

Lu, H.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

Mafi, A.

Mao, D.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mao, W.

Marks, B. S.

Menyuk, C. R.

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, A. Docherty, B. S. Marks, and C. R. Menyuk, “Boundary tracking algorithms for determining the stability of mode-locked pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2914–2930 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
[Crossref]

Montina, A.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mou, C.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nazemosadat, E.

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. IIday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Onorato, M.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ortaç, B.

Özgören, K.

Panicker, R. A.

Poletti, F.

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Residori, S.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Salvin, C. J.

Schülzgen, A.

She, X.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shemirani, M. B.

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tegin, U.

Turitsyn, S. K.

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. IIday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, A. Docherty, B. S. Marks, and C. R. Menyuk, “Boundary tracking algorithms for determining the stability of mode-locked pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2914–2930 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wise, F. W.

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Xu, S.

Xu, W. C.

Xu, Y.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yao, J.

Yun, L.

Zeng, C.

Zeng, H.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Zheng, and S. Xu, “Switchable dual-wavelength Q-switched fiber laser using multilayer black phosphorus as a saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 6, 198–203 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

Zhou, K.

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zweck, J.

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Ge, Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. Liang, Y. Song, Y. Zou, H. Zeng, S. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, and L. Zhao, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

M. Chernysheva, A. Rozhin, Y. Fedotov, C. Mou, R. Arif, S. M. Kobtsev, E. M. Dianov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nanophotonics 6, 1–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. IIday, “Soliton-similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90  MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10, 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Dynamics trapping of a polarization rotation vector soliton in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 330–333 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. S. Ahsan and G. P. Agrawal, “Graded-index solitons in multimode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3345–3348 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. N. Wang, F. Wang, L. Li, C. Zhao, B. Xu, S. Jin, S. Cao, and Z. Fang, “Stretched graded-index multimode optical fiber as a saturable absorber for erbium-doped fiber laser mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2078–2081 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion femtosecond laser with a nonlinear multimodal interference-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1611–1614 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Özgören and F. Ö. IIday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1296–1298 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Mafi, P. Hofmann, C. J. Salvin, and A. Schülzgen, “Low-loss coupling between two single-mode optical fibers with different mode-field diameters using a graded-index multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3596–3598 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Liou and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of frequency chirp on soliton spectral sidebands in fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1286–1288 (1995).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Soliton modulation instability in fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023806 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Effective cavity dispersion shift induced by nonlinearity in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013804 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, W. Chang, C. Yang, N. Akhmediev, and S. T. Cundiff, “Observation of coexisting dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 253903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. M. W. French, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 58, 169–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Z. Yan, X. Hu, W. Zhang, T. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber-based saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 8, 16369 (2018).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stud. Appl. Math. (1)

Y. Shen, J. Zweck, S. Wang, and C. R. Menyuk, “Spectra of short pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation near zero dispersion,” Stud. Appl. Math. 137, 238–255 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic structure of SMF–GIMF–SMF. Blue and red lines denote light under a linear (low power) and a nonlinear (high power) case, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Transmission is plotted as a function of peak power with the GIMF-length of 30 cm; (b) a relative metric for pulse power discrimination with the length of GIMF LGIMF=30  cm+δL.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the passively mode-locked fiber laser. Inset: nonlinear power-dependent transmission (left) and microscopy image of a GIMF-based modulator.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Characterizations of a CS and a SP. Output spectra of (a) a CS and (b) a SP plot in linear and logarithmic coordinates (insets); temporal information and RF spectra of (c) a CS and (d) a SP.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Output power (blue) and pulse energy (red) as functions of launched pump power. A, B, C, and D denote the regions of the laser operations for generating a CS, the multipulse state of the CS, a SP, and the multipulse state of the SP, respectively. The slope efficiencies of the laser in regions A and C are 1.8% and 3.1%, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Real-time observations of spectral dynamics of (a) a CS and (b) a SP. Inset: continuous real-time spectra measured by the DFT.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Statistical information and the dynamics process of a rogue wave.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Numerical simulation results. Temporal and spectral profiles of (a) a CS and (b) a SP; the spectral evolution of (c) CS and (d) SP pulses.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ=1P02|pAp*(0)Ap(z)|2,P0=p|Ap(z)|2.
D2=β2L=4πmT022Cg0T22L(3.57ΔfmTFWHM)2+1C2.

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