Abstract

The scattering medium is usually thought to have a negative effect on the imaging process. In this paper, it is shown that the imaging quality of reflective ghost imaging (GI) in the scattering medium can be improved effectively when the binary method is used. By the experimental and the numerical results, it is proved that the existence of the scattering medium is just the cause of this phenomenon, i.e., the scattering medium has a positive effect on the imaging quality of reflective GI. During this process, the effect from the scattering medium behaves as the random noise which makes the imaging quality of binary ghost imaging have an obvious improvement.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
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  5. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. L. Gong, “High-resolution pseudo-inverse ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 234–237 (2015).
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  8. C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Li, D. Y. Yang, B. Luo, G. H. Wu, L. F. Yin, and H. Guo, “Image quality recovery in binary ghost imaging by adding random noise,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1640–1643 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Chen and X. Chen, “Grayscale object authentication based on ghost imaging using binary signals,” Europhys. Lett. 110, 44002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. W. Gong and S. S. Han, “Correlated imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36, 394–396 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. K. Xu, W. T. Liu, E. F. Zhang, Q. Li, and H. Yi, “Is ghost imaging intrinsically more powerful against scattering?” Opt. Express 23, 32993–33000 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).
  24. S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Gao, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Li, D. Y. Yang, B. Luo, G. H. Wu, L. F. Yin, and H. Guo, “Image quality recovery in binary ghost imaging by adding random noise,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1640–1643 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. Sun, S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, J. H. Shapiro, and M. J. Padgett, “Normalized ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 16892–16901 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Gong and S. S. Han, “Correlated imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36, 394–396 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y. F.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bina, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

Boyd, R. W.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. W. C.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. L.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Grayscale object authentication based on ghost imaging using binary signals,” Europhys. Lett. 110, 44002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Grayscale object authentication based on ghost imaging using binary signals,” Europhys. Lett. 110, 44002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deacon, K. S.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Edgar, M. P.

Ferri, F.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. Q.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Point-spread function in ghost imaging system with thermal light,” Opt. Express 24, 25856–25866 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Gatti, A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gong, L. W.

Gong, W. L.

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gong, “High-resolution pseudo-inverse ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 234–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Han, S. S.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. W. Gong and S. S. Han, “Correlated imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36, 394–396 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hardy, N. D.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Howell, J. C.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Howl, G. A.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. W.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

Ixon, P. B.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. J.

M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lei, Z.

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, E. R.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H. X.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, J. H.

Li, M.

Li, Q.

Liu, W. T.

Lugiato, L. A.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Luo, B.

Magatti, D.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mendez, E. R.

M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

Meyers, R. E.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Molteni, M.

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nan, S. Q.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

O’Donnell, K. A.

M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan-Hale, C.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Qu, L. J.

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, B.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scarcelli, G.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sergienko, A. V.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. H.

B. Sun, S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, J. H. Shapiro, and M. J. Padgett, “Normalized ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 16892–16901 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, X. H.

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, L. J. Qu, H. X. Li, and X. Q. Fu, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging of reflective objects with different surface roughness,” Photon. Res. 5, 372–376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y. H.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Simon, D. S.

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. F.

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. X.

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Welsh, S. S.

Wu, G. H.

Xu, W. D.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. K.

Yan, Y. J.

J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. Y.

Yao, X.

Yi, H.

Yin, L. F.

Yu, H.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

Zeng, G.

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. W.

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. F.

Zhao, C. Q.

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Li, J. Shi, Y. Zhu, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging through strongly scattering mediums,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 051901 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Zhao, W. L. Gong, M. L. Chen, E. R. Li, H. Wang, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. (1)

J. Cheng, S. S. Han, and Y. J. Yan, “Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light,” Chin. Phys. 15, 2002–2006 (2006).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Grayscale object authentication based on ghost imaging using binary signals,” Europhys. Lett. 110, 44002 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

S. Q. Nan, Y. F. Bai, X. H. Shi, Q. Shen, H. X. Li, L. J. Qu, and X. Q. Fu, “Ghost imaging for a reflected object with large incident angles,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Lei, C. F. Wang, D. W. Zhang, L. X. Wang, and W. L. Gong, “Second-order intensity-correlated imaging through the scattering medium,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7500207 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. J. Kim, E. R. Mendez, and K. A. O’Donnell, “Scattering from gamma-distributed surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1107–1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

X. H. Shi, X. W. Huang, S. Q. Nan, H. X. Li, Y. F. Bai, and X. Q. Fu, “Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15, 045204 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Res. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

P. B. Ixon, G. A. Howl, K. W. C. Chan, C. O’Sullivan-Hale, B. Rodenburg, N. D. Hardy, J. H. Shapiro, D. S. Simon, A. V. Sergienko, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Quantum ghost imaging through turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bina, D. Magatti, M. Molteni, A. Gatti, L. A. Lugiato, and F. Ferri, “Backscattering differential ghost imaging in turbid media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. L. Gong, C. Q. Zhao, H. Yu, M. L. Chen, W. D. Xu, and S. S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Setup of reflective GI in the scattering medium. n, i, and o denote the unit vectors which point in the direction of the surface normal, the incident beam, and the detection plane, respectively. θi and θo represent the incident angle and the reflective angle, respectively. (b) The probability distribution function of the speckle patterns from the scattering medium.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Retrieved ghost-images of a reflective object with 3000 measurements under different concentrations of the scattering medium and incident angles. (a) No scattering medium. (b) The result based on (a) using MCS. (c), (d) The corresponding results when the latex spherical calibration particle added to NaCl solution is 1.2 and 2.4 mL, respectively. The first and the second rows correspond to the results under θi=π/12 and π/4, respectively. (e), (f) The dependence of the SNR and the CNR on the concentration of the scattering medium under different incident angles, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Acquired images with θ=π/12 under (a) no scattering and (b) 1.9% scattering medium. (c), (d) The corresponding results when a large incident angle θ=π/4 is chosen. (e) The ghost-image under the same parameters as those in (d) except for the 2.4% scattering medium. Here, the first column is the result from traditional GI, and the second column corresponds to the case in BGI.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulation results (a) with no scattering medium and (b) considering the scattering. The first and the second columns are the results from traditional GI and BGI, respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G(xr,xt)|E*(u1)E(u2)hr(u1,xr)ht*(u2,xt)du1du2|2,
E*(u1)E(u2)=exp(-u12+u222a2)δ(u1-u2),
ht(u2,xt)dξdx1dx2exp[-jπλz1(x1-u2)2]×exp[jϕ(x1)]exp[-jπλΔz(ξcosθi-x1)2]t(ξ)exp[-jπλΔz(x2-ξcosθo)2]×exp[jϕ(x2)]exp[-jπλz2(xt-x2)2],
γ(x,x)=exp{j[ϕ(x)-ϕ(x)]}=exp{-σ2[1-e-(x-x)2s2]},
hr(u1,xr)exp[-jπλz0(xr-u1)2].
G(xr)G(xr,xt)dxt=dξdx1dx1[t(ξ)]2exp{-σ2[1-e-(x1-x1)2s2]}×sinc2[a(ξcosθi-xr)λz1],
SNR=G(xr)ΔG(xr)=G(xr)[Ir(xr)It(xt)+2G(xr)]2-G2(xr)=N[πMa2G(xr)+2]2-1,