Abstract

In this paper we describe the scanning electron microscopy techniques of electron backscatter diffraction, electron channeling contrast imaging, wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. We present our recent results on the use of these non-destructive techniques to obtain information on the topography, crystal misorientation, defect distributions, composition, doping, and light emission from a range of UV-emitting nitride semiconductor structures. We aim to illustrate the developing capability of each of these techniques for understanding the properties of UV-emitting nitride semiconductors, and the benefits were appropriate, in combining the techniques.

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Corrections

18 November 2019: A typographical correction was made to the article title.


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2019 (2)

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics. 13, 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Mantach, P. Vennéguès, J. Z. Perez, P. De Mierry, M. Leroux, M. Portail, and G. Feuillet, “Semipolar (10-11) GaN growth on silicon-on-insulator substrates: defect reduction and meltback etching suppression,” J. Appl. Phys. 125, 035703 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

N. Mante, S. Rennesson, E. Frayssinet, L. Largeau, F. Semond, J. L. Rouviere, G. Feuillet, and P. Vennéguès, “Proposition of a model elucidating the AlN-on-Si (111) microstructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 215701 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, Y. Zhang, J. Bai, L. Jiu, X. Yu, Y. P. Gong, R. M. Smith, T. Wang, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Imaging basal plane stacking faults and dislocations in (11-22) GaN using electron channelling contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 065301 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Schulze, L. Strakos, T. Vystavel, R. Loo, A. Pacco, N. Collaert, W. Vandervost, and M. Caymax, “Non-destructive characterization of extended crystalline defects in confined semiconductor device structures,” Nanoscale 10, 7058–7066 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. G. Callahan, B. B. Haidet, D. Jung, G. G. Seward, and K. Mukherjee, “Direct observation of recombination-enhanced dislocation glide in heteroepitaxial GaAs on silicon,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 081601 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Pascal, B. Hourahine, G. Naresh-Kumar, K. Mingard, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Dislocation contrast in electron channelling contrast images as projections of strain-like components,” Mater. Today 5, 14652–14661 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, P. Fletcher, P. Chausse, R. W. Martin, and P. Shields, “Hybrid top-down/bottom-up fabrication of a highly uniform and organized faceted AlN nanorod scaffold,” Materials 11, 1140 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. D. Smith, D. Thomson, V. Z. Zubialevich, H. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Trager-Cowan, and P. J. Parbrook, “Nanoscale fissure formation in AlxGa1–xN/GaN heterostructures and their influence on ohmic contact formation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214, 1600353 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Park, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and T. Y. Seong, “Group III-nitride-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: ways of increasing external quantum efficiency,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6, Q42–Q52 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, A. Vilalta-Clemente, H. Jussila, A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, S. Vespucci, S. Nagarajan, A. J. Wilkinson, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Quantitative imaging of anti-phase domains by polarity sensitive orientation mapping using electron backscatter diffraction,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10916 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, Z. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Warzecha, P. R. Edwards, L. Jiu, Y. Gong, J. Bai, T. Wang, C. Trager-Cowan, and R. W. Martin, “Spatially-resolved optical and structural properties of semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1–xN with x up to 0.56,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10804 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, P. R. Edwards, T. Wernicke, M. Kneissl, and R. W. Martin, “Analysis of doping concentration and composition in wide bandgap AlGaN: Si by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 035020 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J. P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, J. Bai, Y. Hou, X. Yu, Y. Gong, R. M. Smith, and T. Wang, “Microstructure investigation of semi-polar (11-22) GaN overgrown on differently designed micro-rod array templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241906 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Leung, D. Wang, Y. S. Kuo, and J. Han, “Complete orientational access for semipolar GaN devices on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi B 253, 23–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, M. Nouf-Allehiani, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Electron channelling contrast imaging for III-nitride thin film structures,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 47, 44–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hagedorn, A. Knauer, A. Mogilatenko, E. Richter, and M. Weyers, “AlN growth on nano-patterned sapphire: a route for cost efficient pseudo substrates for deep UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 213, 3178–3185 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. N. Yaung, S. Kirnstoetter, J. Faucher, A. Gerger, A. Lochtefeld, A. Barnett, and L. L. Minjoo, “Threading dislocation density characterization in III-V photovoltaic materials by electron channeling contrast imaging,” J. Cryst. Growth 453, 65–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Kusch, M. Nouf-Allehiani, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, P. R. Edwards, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Spatial clustering of defect luminescence centers in Si-doped low resistivity Al0.82Ga0. 18N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 072103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. I. Deitz, S. D. Carnevale, S. A. Ringel, D. W. McComb, and T. J. Grassman, “Electron channeling contrast imaging for rapid III-V heteroepitaxial characterization,” J. Vis. Exp. 101, e52745 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

S. D. Carnevale, J. I. Deitz, J. A. Carlin, Y. N. Picard, M. De Graef, S. A. Ringel, and T. J. Grassman, “Rapid misfit dislocation characterization in heteroepitaxial III-V/Si thin films by electron channeling contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zaefferer and N. N. Elhami, “Theory and application of electron channelling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions,” Acta Mater. 75, 20–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. Kraeusel, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, S. Loveloc, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN,” Microsc. Microanal. 20, 55–60 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, H. Li, P. R. Edwards, J. Bruckbauer, P. J. Parbrook, and R. W. Martin, “Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 092114 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Schade, T. Wernicke, J. Raß, S. Ploch, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and U. T. Schwarz, “Surface topology caused by dislocations in polar, semipolar, and nonpolar InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 756–760 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mogilatenko, V. Küller, A. Knauer, J. Jeschke, U. Zeimer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, “Defect analysis in AlGaN layers on AlN templates obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Cryst. Growth 402, 222–229 (2014).
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K. P. Korona, A. Reszka, M. Sobanska, P. S. Perkowska, A. Wysmołek, K. Klosek, and Z. R. Zytkiewicz, “Dynamics of stacking faults luminescence in GaN/Si nanowires,” J. Lumin. 155, 293–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lähnemann, U. Jahn, O. Brandt, T. Flissikowski, P. Dogan, and H. T. Grahn, “Luminescence associated with stacking faults in GaN,” J. Phys. D 47, 423001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Kubo, H. Kotaro, and U. Akira, “Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis,” Ultramicroscopy 135, 64–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Mauder, K. R. Wang, S. Kraeusel, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, H. Kalisch, A. Vescan, C. Giesen, and M. Heuken, “Electron channeling contrast imaging studies of nonpolar nitrides using a scanning electron microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 142103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

E. B. Yakimov, “Investigation of electrical and optical properties in semiconductor structures via SEM techniques with high spatial resolution,” J. Surf. Invest.: X-Ray, Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 6, 887–889 (2012).
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A. J. Wilkinson and T. B. Britton, “Strains, planes, and EBSD in materials science,” Mater. Today 15, 366–376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Picard, R. Kamaladasa, M. De Graef, N. Nuhfer, W. Mershon, T. Owens, L. Sedlacek, and F. Lopour, “Future prospects for defect and strain analysis in the SEM via electron channeling,” Microsc. Today 20, 12–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Scholz, “Semipolar GaN grown on foreign substrates: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024002 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. I. Wright, M. M. Nowell, and D. P. Field, “A review of strain analysis using electron backscatter diffraction,” Microsc. Microanal. 17, 316–329 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. R. Edwards and R. W. Martin, “Cathodoluminescence nano-characterization of semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 064005 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channeling,” J. Microsc. 244, 311–319 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy, “Approach for dislocation free GaN epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 3143–3146 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bachmann, R. Hielscher, and H. Schaeben, “Texture analysis with MTEX–free and open source software toolbox,” Solid State Phenom. 160, 63–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. Winkelmann, C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, A. P. Day, and P. J. Parbrook, “Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 414–421 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, and R. Gauvin, “CASINO V2. 42—a fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, P. W. Trimby, A. P. Day, A. Gholinia, N.-H. Schmidt, P. J. Parbrook, A. J. Wilkinson, and I. M. Watson, “Electron backscatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast imaging of tilt and dislocations in nitride thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085301 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. J. Wilkinson, G. Meaden, and D. J. Dingley, “High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: new levels of sensitivity,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 307–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Friel and C. E. Lyman, “X-ray mapping in electron-beam instruments,” Microsc. Microanal. 12, 2–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a-plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. E. Norman, “Challenging the spatial resolution limits of CL and EBIC,” Solid State Phenom. 78, 19–28 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. A. Crimp, B. A. Simkin, and B. C. Ng, “Demonstration of the g·bxu=0 edge dislocation invisibility criterion for electron channelling contrast imaging,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 81, 833–837 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

V. Potin, P. Ruterana, G. Nouet, R. C. Pond, and H. Morkoç, “Mosaic growth of GaN on (0001) sapphire: a high-resolution electron microscopy and crystallographic study of threading dislocations from low-angle to high-angle grain boundaries,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 5587–5599 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. P. Day and T. E. Quested, “A comparison of grain imaging and measurement using horizontal orientation and colour orientation contrast imaging, electron backscatter pattern and optical methods,” J. Microsc. 195, 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. J. Wilkinson and P. B. Hirsch, “Electron diffraction based techniques in scanning electron microscopy of bulk materials,” Micron 28, 279–308 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Christen, M. Grundmann, and D. Bimberg, “Scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy—a unique approach to atomic-scale characterization of heterointerfaces and imaging of semiconductor inhomogeneities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2358–2368 (1991).
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

H. G. J. Moseley, “The high-frequency spectra of the elements,” Philos. Mag. 27, 703–713 (1914).
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Adams, B. L.

A. J. Schwartz, M. Kumar, B. L. Adams, and D. P. Field, Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science (Springer, 2009).

Aimez, V.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, and R. Gauvin, “CASINO V2. 42—a fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Akira, U.

Y. Kubo, H. Kotaro, and U. Akira, “Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis,” Ultramicroscopy 135, 64–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alloing, B.

P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics. 13, 233–244 (2019).
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Armstrong, R.

P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Bachmann, F.

F. Bachmann, R. Hielscher, and H. Schaeben, “Texture analysis with MTEX–free and open source software toolbox,” Solid State Phenom. 160, 63–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, Y. Zhang, J. Bai, L. Jiu, X. Yu, Y. P. Gong, R. M. Smith, T. Wang, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Imaging basal plane stacking faults and dislocations in (11-22) GaN using electron channelling contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 065301 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, Z. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Warzecha, P. R. Edwards, L. Jiu, Y. Gong, J. Bai, T. Wang, C. Trager-Cowan, and R. W. Martin, “Spatially-resolved optical and structural properties of semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1–xN with x up to 0.56,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10804 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, J. Bai, Y. Hou, X. Yu, Y. Gong, R. M. Smith, and T. Wang, “Microstructure investigation of semi-polar (11-22) GaN overgrown on differently designed micro-rod array templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241906 (2016).
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Barnett, A.

K. N. Yaung, S. Kirnstoetter, J. Faucher, A. Gerger, A. Lochtefeld, A. Barnett, and L. L. Minjoo, “Threading dislocation density characterization in III-V photovoltaic materials by electron channeling contrast imaging,” J. Cryst. Growth 453, 65–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

J. Christen, M. Grundmann, and D. Bimberg, “Scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy—a unique approach to atomic-scale characterization of heterointerfaces and imaging of semiconductor inhomogeneities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2358–2368 (1991).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

J. Lähnemann, U. Jahn, O. Brandt, T. Flissikowski, P. Dogan, and H. T. Grahn, “Luminescence associated with stacking faults in GaN,” J. Phys. D 47, 423001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Britton, T. B.

A. J. Wilkinson and T. B. Britton, “Strains, planes, and EBSD in materials science,” Mater. Today 15, 366–376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bruckbauer, J.

J. Bruckbauer, Z. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Warzecha, P. R. Edwards, L. Jiu, Y. Gong, J. Bai, T. Wang, C. Trager-Cowan, and R. W. Martin, “Spatially-resolved optical and structural properties of semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1–xN with x up to 0.56,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10804 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, M. Nouf-Allehiani, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Electron channelling contrast imaging for III-nitride thin film structures,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 47, 44–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, H. Li, P. R. Edwards, J. Bruckbauer, P. J. Parbrook, and R. W. Martin, “Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 092114 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. Kraeusel, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, S. Loveloc, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN,” Microsc. Microanal. 20, 55–60 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Mauder, K. R. Wang, S. Kraeusel, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, H. Kalisch, A. Vescan, C. Giesen, and M. Heuken, “Electron channeling contrast imaging studies of nonpolar nitrides using a scanning electron microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 142103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 141908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J. P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bryan, Z.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J. P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

Callahan, P. G.

P. G. Callahan, B. B. Haidet, D. Jung, G. G. Seward, and K. Mukherjee, “Direct observation of recombination-enhanced dislocation glide in heteroepitaxial GaAs on silicon,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 081601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. A.

S. D. Carnevale, J. I. Deitz, J. A. Carlin, Y. N. Picard, M. De Graef, S. A. Ringel, and T. J. Grassman, “Rapid misfit dislocation characterization in heteroepitaxial III-V/Si thin films by electron channeling contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, S. D.

J. I. Deitz, S. D. Carnevale, S. A. Ringel, D. W. McComb, and T. J. Grassman, “Electron channeling contrast imaging for rapid III-V heteroepitaxial characterization,” J. Vis. Exp. 101, e52745 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Carnevale, J. I. Deitz, J. A. Carlin, Y. N. Picard, M. De Graef, S. A. Ringel, and T. J. Grassman, “Rapid misfit dislocation characterization in heteroepitaxial III-V/Si thin films by electron channeling contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caymax, M.

A. Schulze, L. Strakos, T. Vystavel, R. Loo, A. Pacco, N. Collaert, W. Vandervost, and M. Caymax, “Non-destructive characterization of extended crystalline defects in confined semiconductor device structures,” Nanoscale 10, 7058–7066 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chausse, P.

P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, P. Fletcher, P. Chausse, R. W. Martin, and P. Shields, “Hybrid top-down/bottom-up fabrication of a highly uniform and organized faceted AlN nanorod scaffold,” Materials 11, 1140 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Cho, J.

J. S. Park, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and T. Y. Seong, “Group III-nitride-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: ways of increasing external quantum efficiency,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6, Q42–Q52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

J. Christen, M. Grundmann, and D. Bimberg, “Scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy—a unique approach to atomic-scale characterization of heterointerfaces and imaging of semiconductor inhomogeneities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2358–2368 (1991).
[Crossref]

Collaert, N.

A. Schulze, L. Strakos, T. Vystavel, R. Loo, A. Pacco, N. Collaert, W. Vandervost, and M. Caymax, “Non-destructive characterization of extended crystalline defects in confined semiconductor device structures,” Nanoscale 10, 7058–7066 (2018).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, L. Hussey, C. Shelton, J. Tweedie, J. P. Maria, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 451, 65–71 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, S. Mita, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Surface kinetics in AlN growth: a universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 438, 81–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coulon, P. M.

P. M. Coulon, G. Kusch, P. Fletcher, P. Chausse, R. W. Martin, and P. Shields, “Hybrid top-down/bottom-up fabrication of a highly uniform and organized faceted AlN nanorod scaffold,” Materials 11, 1140 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Couture, A. R.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, and R. Gauvin, “CASINO V2. 42—a fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crimp, M. A.

M. A. Crimp, B. A. Simkin, and B. C. Ng, “Demonstration of the g·bxu=0 edge dislocation invisibility criterion for electron channelling contrast imaging,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 81, 833–837 (2001).
[Crossref]

Damilano, B.

P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Davis, R. F.

R. J. Kamaladasa, F. Liu, L. M. Porter, R. F. Davis, D. D. Koleske, G. Mulholland, K. A. Jones, and Y. N. Picard, “Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channeling,” J. Microsc. 244, 311–319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Day, A. P.

G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, P. W. Trimby, A. P. Day, A. Gholinia, N.-H. Schmidt, P. J. Parbrook, A. J. Wilkinson, and I. M. Watson, “Electron backscatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast imaging of tilt and dislocations in nitride thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085301 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Winkelmann, C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, A. P. Day, and P. J. Parbrook, “Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 414–421 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. P. Day and T. E. Quested, “A comparison of grain imaging and measurement using horizontal orientation and colour orientation contrast imaging, electron backscatter pattern and optical methods,” J. Microsc. 195, 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

De Graef, M.

S. D. Carnevale, J. I. Deitz, J. A. Carlin, Y. N. Picard, M. De Graef, S. A. Ringel, and T. J. Grassman, “Rapid misfit dislocation characterization in heteroepitaxial III-V/Si thin films by electron channeling contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Picard, R. Kamaladasa, M. De Graef, N. Nuhfer, W. Mershon, T. Owens, L. Sedlacek, and F. Lopour, “Future prospects for defect and strain analysis in the SEM via electron channeling,” Microsc. Today 20, 12–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Mierry, P.

R. Mantach, P. Vennéguès, J. Z. Perez, P. De Mierry, M. Leroux, M. Portail, and G. Feuillet, “Semipolar (10-11) GaN growth on silicon-on-insulator substrates: defect reduction and meltback etching suppression,” J. Appl. Phys. 125, 035703 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deitz, J. I.

J. I. Deitz, S. D. Carnevale, S. A. Ringel, D. W. McComb, and T. J. Grassman, “Electron channeling contrast imaging for rapid III-V heteroepitaxial characterization,” J. Vis. Exp. 101, e52745 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Carnevale, J. I. Deitz, J. A. Carlin, Y. N. Picard, M. De Graef, S. A. Ringel, and T. J. Grassman, “Rapid misfit dislocation characterization in heteroepitaxial III-V/Si thin films by electron channeling contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dingley, D. J.

A. J. Wilkinson, G. Meaden, and D. J. Dingley, “High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: new levels of sensitivity,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 307–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dogan, P.

J. Lähnemann, U. Jahn, O. Brandt, T. Flissikowski, P. Dogan, and H. T. Grahn, “Luminescence associated with stacking faults in GaN,” J. Phys. D 47, 423001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Drouin, D.

D. Drouin, A. R. Couture, D. Joly, X. Tastet, V. Aimez, and R. Gauvin, “CASINO V2. 42—a fast and easy-to-use modeling tool for scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis users,” Scanning 29, 92–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Echlin, P.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, D. Joy, C. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Springer, 2007).

Eddy, C. R.

J. K. Hite, M. A. Mastro, and C. R. Eddy, “Approach for dislocation free GaN epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 3143–3146 (2010).
[Crossref]

Edwards, P. R.

J. Bruckbauer, Z. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Warzecha, P. R. Edwards, L. Jiu, Y. Gong, J. Bai, T. Wang, C. Trager-Cowan, and R. W. Martin, “Spatially-resolved optical and structural properties of semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1–xN with x up to 0.56,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10804 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, P. R. Edwards, T. Wernicke, M. Kneissl, and R. W. Martin, “Analysis of doping concentration and composition in wide bandgap AlGaN: Si by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 035020 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, M. Nouf-Allehiani, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Electron channelling contrast imaging for III-nitride thin film structures,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 47, 44–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, M. Nouf-Allehiani, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, P. R. Edwards, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, G. Naresh-Kumar, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Spatial clustering of defect luminescence centers in Si-doped low resistivity Al0.82Ga0. 18N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 072103 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. Kraeusel, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, S. Loveloc, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN,” Microsc. Microanal. 20, 55–60 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kusch, H. Li, P. R. Edwards, J. Bruckbauer, P. J. Parbrook, and R. W. Martin, “Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 092114 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Mauder, K. R. Wang, S. Kraeusel, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, B. Hourahine, H. Kalisch, A. Vescan, C. Giesen, and M. Heuken, “Electron channeling contrast imaging studies of nonpolar nitrides using a scanning electron microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 142103 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Weyers, M.

S. Hagedorn, A. Knauer, A. Mogilatenko, E. Richter, and M. Weyers, “AlN growth on nano-patterned sapphire: a route for cost efficient pseudo substrates for deep UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 213, 3178–3185 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

A. Mogilatenko, V. Küller, A. Knauer, J. Jeschke, U. Zeimer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, “Defect analysis in AlGaN layers on AlN templates obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Cryst. Growth 402, 222–229 (2014).
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Wilkinson, A. J.

G. Naresh-Kumar, A. Vilalta-Clemente, H. Jussila, A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, S. Vespucci, S. Nagarajan, A. J. Wilkinson, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Quantitative imaging of anti-phase domains by polarity sensitive orientation mapping using electron backscatter diffraction,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10916 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Wilkinson and T. B. Britton, “Strains, planes, and EBSD in materials science,” Mater. Today 15, 366–376 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
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[Crossref]

A. J. Wilkinson, G. Meaden, and D. J. Dingley, “High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: new levels of sensitivity,” Ultramicroscopy 106, 307–313 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. Wilkinson and P. B. Hirsch, “Electron diffraction based techniques in scanning electron microscopy of bulk materials,” Micron 28, 279–308 (1997).
[Crossref]

Winkelmann, A.

G. Naresh-Kumar, A. Vilalta-Clemente, H. Jussila, A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, S. Vespucci, S. Nagarajan, A. J. Wilkinson, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Quantitative imaging of anti-phase domains by polarity sensitive orientation mapping using electron backscatter diffraction,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10916 (2017).
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G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
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A. Winkelmann, C. Trager-Cowan, F. Sweeney, A. P. Day, and P. J. Parbrook, “Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns,” Ultramicroscopy 107, 414–421 (2007).
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A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, M. Himmerlich, V. Lebedev, and A. Reichmann, “Point-group sensitive orientation mapping using EBSD,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth, E. A. Holm, S. Farjami, P. Manohar, G. Rohrer, A. D. Rollett, D. Srolovitz, and H. Weiland, eds. (Springer, 2016), pp. 281–286.

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S. I. Wright, M. M. Nowell, and D. P. Field, “A review of strain analysis using electron backscatter diffraction,” Microsc. Microanal. 17, 316–329 (2011).
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B. G. Yacobi and D. B. Holt, Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Inorganic Solids (Plenum, 1990).

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E. B. Yakimov, “Investigation of electrical and optical properties in semiconductor structures via SEM techniques with high spatial resolution,” J. Surf. Invest.: X-Ray, Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 6, 887–889 (2012).
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K. N. Yaung, S. Kirnstoetter, J. Faucher, A. Gerger, A. Lochtefeld, A. Barnett, and L. L. Minjoo, “Threading dislocation density characterization in III-V photovoltaic materials by electron channeling contrast imaging,” J. Cryst. Growth 453, 65–70 (2016).
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G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, Y. Zhang, J. Bai, L. Jiu, X. Yu, Y. P. Gong, R. M. Smith, T. Wang, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Imaging basal plane stacking faults and dislocations in (11-22) GaN using electron channelling contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 065301 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, J. Bai, Y. Hou, X. Yu, Y. Gong, R. M. Smith, and T. Wang, “Microstructure investigation of semi-polar (11-22) GaN overgrown on differently designed micro-rod array templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241906 (2016).
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S. Zaefferer and N. N. Elhami, “Theory and application of electron channelling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions,” Acta Mater. 75, 20–50 (2014).
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A. Mogilatenko, V. Küller, A. Knauer, J. Jeschke, U. Zeimer, M. Weyers, and G. Tränkle, “Defect analysis in AlGaN layers on AlN templates obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Cryst. Growth 402, 222–229 (2014).
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G. Naresh-Kumar, D. Thomson, Y. Zhang, J. Bai, L. Jiu, X. Yu, Y. P. Gong, R. M. Smith, T. Wang, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Imaging basal plane stacking faults and dislocations in (11-22) GaN using electron channelling contrast imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 065301 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, J. Bai, Y. Hou, X. Yu, Y. Gong, R. M. Smith, and T. Wang, “Microstructure investigation of semi-polar (11-22) GaN overgrown on differently designed micro-rod array templates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241906 (2016).
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W. Zhou and Z. L. Wang, Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology: Techniques and Applications (Springer, 2007).

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M. D. Smith, D. Thomson, V. Z. Zubialevich, H. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Trager-Cowan, and P. J. Parbrook, “Nanoscale fissure formation in AlxGa1–xN/GaN heterostructures and their influence on ohmic contact formation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214, 1600353 (2017).
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P. M. Coulon, B. Damilano, B. Alloing, P. Chausse, S. Walde, J. Enslin, R. Armstrong, S. Vézian, S. Hagedorn, T. Wernicke, J. Massies, J. Zúñiga‐Pérez, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and P. A. Shields, “Displacement Talbot lithography for nano-engineering of III-nitride materials,” Microsyst. Nanoeng., Accepted/In press (2019).

Zytkiewicz, Z. R.

K. P. Korona, A. Reszka, M. Sobanska, P. S. Perkowska, A. Wysmołek, K. Klosek, and Z. R. Zytkiewicz, “Dynamics of stacking faults luminescence in GaN/Si nanowires,” J. Lumin. 155, 293–297 (2014).
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Acta Mater. (1)

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Micron (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Naresh-Kumar, B. Hourahine, P. R. Edwards, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, G. England, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Rapid nondestructive analysis of threading dislocations in wurtzite materials using the scanning electron microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135503 (2012).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (3)

M. D. Smith, D. Thomson, V. Z. Zubialevich, H. Li, G. Naresh-Kumar, C. Trager-Cowan, and P. J. Parbrook, “Nanoscale fissure formation in AlxGa1–xN/GaN heterostructures and their influence on ohmic contact formation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214, 1600353 (2017).
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L. Schade, T. Wernicke, J. Raß, S. Ploch, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and U. T. Schwarz, “Surface topology caused by dislocations in polar, semipolar, and nonpolar InGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 211, 756–760 (2014).
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S. Hagedorn, A. Knauer, A. Mogilatenko, E. Richter, and M. Weyers, “AlN growth on nano-patterned sapphire: a route for cost efficient pseudo substrates for deep UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 213, 3178–3185 (2016).
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G. Naresh-Kumar, A. Vilalta-Clemente, H. Jussila, A. Winkelmann, G. Nolze, S. Vespucci, S. Nagarajan, A. J. Wilkinson, and C. Trager-Cowan, “Quantitative imaging of anti-phase domains by polarity sensitive orientation mapping using electron backscatter diffraction,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10916 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. ECCI micrograph from AlGaN thin film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) SE image of nPSS, (b) schematic of overgrowth of AlN on nPSS, and (c) ECCI micrograph from an AlN thin film. Inset is on the same scale but with higher resolution.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. EBSD maps from the AlN/nPSS thin film: (a) grain reference orientation deviation (GROD) map and (b) GROD axis map relative to the sample normal (c-axis, [0001] direction]) where the colors denote direction of in-plane rotation (i.e., around the c-axis). The red regions are rotated in the opposite direction to the blue regions as indicated.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of semi-polar GaN microrod template and overgrowth, indicating the distribution of stacking faults on the surface of the sample and the crystallographic directions. (b) ECCI micrograph revealing stacking faults. (c) Example CL spectra from a dark stripe and a bright stripe, respectively. The boxes on (d) indicate where the spectra were extracted from the CL dataset. (d) Integrated CL intensity image of the GaN near band edge (NBE) emission (3.15–3.50 eV) on the same scale as (e) but not from the same area. (e) Higher resolution ECCI micrograph revealing dislocations. (f) Integrated CL intensity image of the GaN near band edge (NBE) emission (3.15–3.50 eV) on the same scale as (e) but not from the same area.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the sample structure. x = 0.82 for the top 1.6 μm layer. (b) Atomic force microscopy image of the sample surface. (c) ECCI micrograph (the black brackets indicate “stripes” of higher dislocation density in the coalescence region). (d) Topographic image. (c) CL near band edge (NBE) peak intensity map. (d) NBE CL peak energy map. Images (c) to (f) were acquired from approximately the same region of the sample. The white arrows indicate the apexes of the hillocks. The CL peak intensity and peak energy were extracted from hyperspectral data.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. WDX maps of the intensities of (a) Ga L α (left) and (c) Al K α (right) X-rays, and (b) a backscattered electron image (center) of a micrometer-scale region of a c-plane AlGaN sample, with an average AlN content of 81%. The scale bar for X-ray intensities applies to both WDX maps, although with different absolute values.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Semi-log plot showing the measured Si content in the GaN layers, calibrated using the points where SIMS data is available (red data points). (b) Long qualitative scan for Si for the sample with lowest measured Si content 2.3 × 10 17    cm 3 , using a TAP crystal showing the WDX Si peak.

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