Abstract

We report on the direct generation of passively mode-locked vortex lasers in the visible spectral region, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, using a Pr:LiYF4 (Pr:YLF) crystal as the gain medium. A stable mode-locked TEM00 mode has been achieved with a maximum average output power of 75 mW using a graphene saturable absorber mirror. The mode-locked pulse width is measured to be as short as about 73.4 ps at a repetition rate of about 140 MHz, and the laser wavelength is at about 721 nm with spectral width of about 0.5 nm. By slightly misaligning the laser resonator, a first-order Laguerre-Gaussian mode (LG0,1) has also been obtained with output power reduced to about 22 mW. The achieved LG0,1 mode has been verified via a home made improved Fizeau interferometer. This work provides a simple and universal method for direct generation of an ultrafast vortex laser, which can be readily extended to other spectral regions by using different laser gain mediums.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (2)

S. Wang, Z. Zhao, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Direct generation of femtosecond vortex beam from a Yb:KYW oscillator featuring a defect-spot mirror,” OSA Continuum 2, 523–530 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, X. Shi, C. Wu, D. Tang, and H. Zhang, “Recent progress of study on optical solitons in fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 021313 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

X. Huang, B. Xu, S. Cui, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Direct generation of vortex laser by rotating induced off-axis pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 24, 1601606 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Xie, S. Jiang, G. Feng, and S. Zhou, “Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiao, G. Q. Xie, Y. Wu, P. Yuan, J. Ma, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Generating high-charge optical vortices directly from laser up to 288th order,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800019 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Bock, J. Jahns, and R. Grunwald, “Few-cycle high-contrast vortex pulses,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3804–3806 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Hnatovsky, V. G. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. V. Rode, “Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3417–3419 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakani, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. F. Quinteiro and J. Berakdar, “Electric currents induced by twisted light in quantum rings,” Opt. Express 17, 20465–20475 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. Sueda, G. Miyaji, N. Miyanaga, and M. Nakatsuka, “Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated with a multilevel spiral phase plate for high intensity laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 3548–3553 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. L. Andrews, L. C. Dávila Romero, and M. Babiker, “On optical vortex interactions with chiral matter,” Opt. Commun. 237, 133–139 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Huber, T. Kellner, H. M. Kretschmann, T. Sandrock, and H. Scheife, “Compact diode pumped cw solid-state lasers in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Mater. 11, 205–216 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander, “Optical vortex trapping of particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 827–829 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakani, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews, L. C. Dávila Romero, and M. Babiker, “On optical vortex interactions with chiral matter,” Opt. Commun. 237, 133–139 (2004).
[Crossref]

Babiker, M.

D. L. Andrews, L. C. Dávila Romero, and M. Babiker, “On optical vortex interactions with chiral matter,” Opt. Commun. 237, 133–139 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakani, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Berakdar, J.

Bock, M.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burger, L.

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakani, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Chen, L.

X. Huang, B. Xu, S. Cui, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Direct generation of vortex laser by rotating induced off-axis pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 24, 1601606 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

Cheng, Y.

Chu, P.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X. Yu, and P. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakani, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cui, S.

X. Huang, B. Xu, S. Cui, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Direct generation of vortex laser by rotating induced off-axis pumping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 24, 1601606 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dávila Romero, L. C.

D. L. Andrews, L. C. Dávila Romero, and M. Babiker, “On optical vortex interactions with chiral matter,” Opt. Commun. 237, 133–139 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dou, Z.

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Z. Qiao, G. Q. Xie, Y. Wu, P. Yuan, J. Ma, L. J. Qian, and D. Y. Fan, “Generating high-charge optical vortices directly from laser up to 288th order,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800019 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multilayer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, G.

S. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Xie, S. Jiang, G. Feng, and S. Zhou, “Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

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[Crossref]

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Y. Song, X. Shi, C. Wu, D. Tang, and H. Zhang, “Recent progress of study on optical solitons in fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 021313 (2019).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the graphene mode-locked Pr:YLF laser with total cavity length of about 106 cm (M1-M2: 13 cm, M2-M4: 27 cm, M1-M3: 59 cm, and M3-M5: 7 cm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Raman spectrum of the graphene excited by a 488 nm laser. Inset: SEM (left) and AFM (right) images of the CVD graphene.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Average output power versus absorbed power of mode-locked Pr:YLF laser at 721 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Spectra of CW and mode-locked lasers. (b) RF spectrum. (c) Typical mode-locked pulse trains. (d) Single pulse trace.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Average output power versus absorbed power of the ML vortex laser. Inset: (left) vortex beam spot with intensity distribution curve, (middle) anticlockwise interference pattern, and (right) clockwise interference pattern.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Optical spectrum of ML vortex. (b) Radio-frequency spectrum of ML vortex. (c) Single pulse trace of ML vortex. (d) Typical mode-locked pulse train on microsecond time scales.