Abstract

With the increasing demand for high integration and multi-color photodetection for both military and civilian applications, the research of multi-wavelength detectors has become a new research hotspot. However, current research has been mainly in visible dual- or multi-wavelength detectors, while integration of both visible light and ultraviolet (UV) dual-wavelength detectors has rarely been studied. In this work, large-scale and high-quality monolayer MoS2 was grown by the chemical vapor deposition method on transparent free-standing GaN substrate. Monolithic integration of MoS2-based visible detectors and GaN-based UV detectors was demonstrated using common semiconductor fabrication technologies such as photolithography, argon plasma etching, and metal deposition. High performance of a 280 nm and 405 nm dual-wavelength photodetector was realized. The responsivity of the UV detector reached 172.12 A/W, while that of the visible detector reached 17.5 A/W. Meanwhile, both photodetectors achieved high photocurrent gain, high external quantum efficiency, high normalized detection rate, and low noise equivalent power. Our study extends the future application of dual-wavelength detectors for image sensing and optical communication.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2019 (8)

R. Cao, H. Wang, Z. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Zhang, Q. Xiao, Y. Zhang, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, C.-K. Lim, Z. Dai, G. Yu, J. W. Haus, H. Zhang, and P. N. Prasad, “Photonics and optoelectronics using nano-structured hybrid perovskite media and their optical cavities,” Phys. Rep. 795, 1–51 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, H. Hou, G. Zou, W. Shi, H. Shuai, J. Li, and X. Ji, “Electrochemical exfoliation of graphene-like two-dimensional nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 11, 16–33 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Shan, Y. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Luo, S. Zu, B. Du, T. Han, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Wu, F. Lin, K. Shi, B. Tay, Z. Liu, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Direct observation of ultrafast plasmonic hot electron transfer in the strong coupling regime,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, M. Xia, S. Liu, R. Hu, G. Liang, and S. Zhang, “Role of rough substrate on the growth of large single-crystal MoS2 by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 476, 1008–1015 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Chen, D. Li, S.-W. Wang, C.-C. Ting, L. Chen, K.-W. Ang, C.-W. Qiu, Y.-L. Chuen, X. Sun, and H.-C. Kuo, “Nearly lattice-matched molybdenum disulfide/gallium nitride heterostructure enabling high-performance phototransistors,” Photon. Res. 7, 311–317 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (11)

F. Gong, F. Wu, M. Long, F. Chen, M. Su, Z. Yang, and J. Shi, “Black phosphorus infrared photodetectors with fast response and high photoresponsivity,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 12, 1800310 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. Li, T. Zhang, J. Wang, P. K. Shrestha, and D. Chu, “Broadband MoS2 field-effect phototransistors: ultrasensitive visible-light photoresponse and negative infrared photoresponse,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705880 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, Q. Tian, G. Yang, Y. Weng, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, F. Xie, and N. Lu, “Epitaxial growth and interfacial property of monolayer MoS2 on gallium nitride,” RSC Adv. 8, 33193–33197 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, J. Wang, G. Yang, N. Lu, G. Chu, X. Zhang, and X. Shen, “Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer MoS2 on sapphire, Si and GaN substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 120, 235–240 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wan, J. Xiao, J. Li, X. Fang, K. Zhang, L. Fu, P. Li, Z. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Zhao, J. Lu, N. Tang, G. Ran, X. Zhang, Y. Ye, and L. Dai, “Epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on GaN with enhanced valley helicity,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1703888 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Li, K. Jiang, X. Sun, and C. Guo, “AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 43–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, C. Chang, G.-Z. Lu, W.-C. Huang, C.-S. Huang, M.-L. Chen, T.-N. Lin, J.-L. Shen, and T.-Y. Lin, “Hybrid 2D/3D MoS2/GaN heterostructures for dual functional photoresponse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 233106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Ou, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. Wang, Z. Dai, W. Li, C. Zheng, Z.-Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p-n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6, 299–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Goel, R. Kumar, B. Roul, M. Kumar, and S. B. Krupanidhi, “Wafer-scale synthesis of a uniform film of few-layer MoS2 on GaN for 2D heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D 51, 374003 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, I. Verzhbitskiy, and G. Eda, “Electroluminescent devices based on 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1802687 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X.-F. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Manzeli, D. Ovchinnikov, D. Pasquier, O. V. Yazyev, and A. Kis, “2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17033 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, C. Yang, A. Patanè, Z. Yu, F. Yan, K. Wang, H. Lu, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “High-detectivity ultraviolet photodetectors based on laterally mesoporous GaN,” Nanoscale 9, 8142–8148 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. C. Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353, aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, Z. Li, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, H. Wang, S. B. Cronin, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, Z. Ye, R. Suzuki, Y. Ye, H. Zhu, J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Y. Iwasa, and X. Zhang, “Atomically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a 2D crystal,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16131 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, J.-H. Shin, G.-H. Lee, and C.-H. Lee, “Two-dimensional semiconductor optoelectronics based on van der Waals heterostructures,” Nanomaterials 6, 193 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. Buscema, J. O. Island, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 3691–3718 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, R. Xu, J. Pei, Y. W. Myint, F. Wang, Z. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Yu, and Y. Lu, “Optical tuning of exciton and trion emissions in monolayer phosphorene,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e312 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. He, Q. Liu, D. Tang, J. Wen, W. Liu, W. Yu, J. Wu, Z. He, Y. Lu, D. Zhu, W. Liu, P. Cao, S. Han, and K.-W. Ang, “Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS2 field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124506 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

K.-G. Zhou, F. Withers, Y. Cao, S. Hu, G. Yu, and C. Casiraghi, “Raman modes of MoS2 used as fingerprint of vander Waals interactions in 2-D crystal-based heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 9914–9924 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, Y. Lee, Y. Lin, W. Fang, L. Yu, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Role of the seeding promoter in MoS2 growth by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14, 464–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Perea-López, Z. Lin, N. R. Pradhan, A. Iñiguez-Rábago, A. L. Elías, A. McCreary, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, H. Terrones, L. Bali, and M. Terrones, “CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 as an effective photosensor operating at low-voltage,” 2D Mater. 1, 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, P. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Ye, S. Kim, and C. J. Lee, “Large-area atomically thin MoS2 nanosheets prepared using electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 8, 6902–6910 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, J.-K. Huang, C.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, Y.-J. Cheng, and L.-J. Li, “High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 25, 3456–3461 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499, 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Hu, L. Wang, M. Yoon, J. Zhang, W. Feng, X. Wang, Z. Wen, J. C. Idrobo, Y. Miyamoto, D. B. Geohegan, and K. Xiao, “Highly responsive ultrathin GaS nanosheet photodetectors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Nano Lett. 13, 1649–1654 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

W. Choi, M. Y. Cho, A. Konar, J. H. Lee, G. Cha, S. C. Hong, S. Kim, J. Kim, D. Jena, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared,” Adv. Mater. 24, 5832–5836 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and G. Miao, “Realization of a high-performance GaN UV detector by nanoplasmonic enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 24, 845–849 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, H. Li, H. Li, L. Jiang, Y. Shi, Y. Sun, G. Lu, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors,” ACS Nano 6, 74–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. Lee, H. G. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single-and few-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 4, 2695–2700 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C.-Y. Chim, G. L. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10, 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4427–4447 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325, 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Wang and R. R. Reeber, “Thermal expansion of GaN and AlN,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 12, 863–868 (1998).

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, and A. N. Smirnov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12899 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Siegle, G. Kaczmarczyk, L. Filippidis, A. P. Litvinchuk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Zone-boundary phonons in hexagonal and cubic GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7000–7004 (1997).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. Murray and B. L. Evans, “The thermal expansion of 2H-MoS2 and 2H-WSe2 between 10 and 320 K,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12, 312–315 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abate, Y.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, Z. Li, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, H. Wang, S. B. Cronin, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

N. Perea-López, Z. Lin, N. R. Pradhan, A. Iñiguez-Rábago, A. L. Elías, A. McCreary, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, H. Terrones, L. Bali, and M. Terrones, “CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 as an effective photosensor operating at low-voltage,” 2D Mater. 1, 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, B.

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ang, K.-W.

X. Liu, Y. Chen, D. Li, S.-W. Wang, C.-C. Ting, L. Chen, K.-W. Ang, C.-W. Qiu, Y.-L. Chuen, X. Sun, and H.-C. Kuo, “Nearly lattice-matched molybdenum disulfide/gallium nitride heterostructure enabling high-performance phototransistors,” Photon. Res. 7, 311–317 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. He, Q. Liu, D. Tang, J. Wen, W. Liu, W. Yu, J. Wu, Z. He, Y. Lu, D. Zhu, W. Liu, P. Cao, S. Han, and K.-W. Ang, “Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS2 field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babicheva, V.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, Z. Li, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, H. Wang, S. B. Cronin, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bali, L.

N. Perea-López, Z. Lin, N. R. Pradhan, A. Iñiguez-Rábago, A. L. Elías, A. McCreary, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, H. Terrones, L. Bali, and M. Terrones, “CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 as an effective photosensor operating at low-voltage,” 2D Mater. 1, 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Ou, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. Wang, Z. Dai, W. Li, C. Zheng, Z.-Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bertolazzi, S.

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanter, S. I.

M. Buscema, J. O. Island, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 3691–3718 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brus, L. E.

C. Lee, H. G. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single-and few-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 4, 2695–2700 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

M. Buscema, J. O. Island, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 3691–3718 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325, 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, P.

X. Liu, J. He, Q. Liu, D. Tang, J. Wen, W. Liu, W. Yu, J. Wu, Z. He, Y. Lu, D. Zhu, W. Liu, P. Cao, S. Han, and K.-W. Ang, “Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS2 field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

R. Cao, H. Wang, Z. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Zhang, Q. Xiao, Y. Zhang, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

K.-G. Zhou, F. Withers, Y. Cao, S. Hu, G. Yu, and C. Casiraghi, “Raman modes of MoS2 used as fingerprint of vander Waals interactions in 2-D crystal-based heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 9914–9924 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325, 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. C. Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353, aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref]

Casiraghi, C.

K.-G. Zhou, F. Withers, Y. Cao, S. Hu, G. Yu, and C. Casiraghi, “Raman modes of MoS2 used as fingerprint of vander Waals interactions in 2-D crystal-based heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 9914–9924 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

M. Buscema, J. O. Island, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 3691–3718 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cha, G.

W. Choi, M. Y. Cho, A. Konar, J. H. Lee, G. Cha, S. C. Hong, S. Kim, J. Kim, D. Jena, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared,” Adv. Mater. 24, 5832–5836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

C.-Y. Huang, C. Chang, G.-Z. Lu, W.-C. Huang, C.-S. Huang, M.-L. Chen, T.-N. Lin, J.-L. Shen, and T.-Y. Lin, “Hybrid 2D/3D MoS2/GaN heterostructures for dual functional photoresponse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 233106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-H.

W. Zhang, J.-K. Huang, C.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, Y.-J. Cheng, and L.-J. Li, “High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 25, 3456–3461 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

W. Zhang, J.-K. Huang, C.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, Y.-J. Cheng, and L.-J. Li, “High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 25, 3456–3461 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Gong, F. Wu, M. Long, F. Chen, M. Su, Z. Yang, and J. Shi, “Black phosphorus infrared photodetectors with fast response and high photoresponsivity,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 12, 1800310 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, M.-L.

C.-Y. Huang, C. Chang, G.-Z. Lu, W.-C. Huang, C.-S. Huang, M.-L. Chen, T.-N. Lin, J.-L. Shen, and T.-Y. Lin, “Hybrid 2D/3D MoS2/GaN heterostructures for dual functional photoresponse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 233106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-W.

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X.-F. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, H. Li, H. Li, L. Jiang, Y. Shi, Y. Sun, G. Lu, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors,” ACS Nano 6, 74–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Chen, D. Li, S.-W. Wang, C.-C. Ting, L. Chen, K.-W. Ang, C.-W. Qiu, Y.-L. Chuen, X. Sun, and H.-C. Kuo, “Nearly lattice-matched molybdenum disulfide/gallium nitride heterostructure enabling high-performance phototransistors,” Photon. Res. 7, 311–317 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and G. Miao, “Realization of a high-performance GaN UV detector by nanoplasmonic enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 24, 845–849 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-J.

W. Zhang, J.-K. Huang, C.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, Y.-J. Cheng, and L.-J. Li, “High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Adv. Mater. 25, 3456–3461 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, M. Xia, S. Liu, R. Hu, G. Liang, and S. Zhang, “Role of rough substrate on the growth of large single-crystal MoS2 by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 476, 1008–1015 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chim, C.-Y.

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C.-Y. Chim, G. L. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10, 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. Y.

W. Choi, M. Y. Cho, A. Konar, J. H. Lee, G. Cha, S. C. Hong, S. Kim, J. Kim, D. Jena, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared,” Adv. Mater. 24, 5832–5836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, M. Y. Cho, A. Konar, J. H. Lee, G. Cha, S. C. Hong, S. Kim, J. Kim, D. Jena, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared,” Adv. Mater. 24, 5832–5836 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, D.

J.-Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. Li, T. Zhang, J. Wang, P. K. Shrestha, and D. Chu, “Broadband MoS2 field-effect phototransistors: ultrasensitive visible-light photoresponse and negative infrared photoresponse,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705880 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, F.

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, G.

P. Yan, J. Wang, G. Yang, N. Lu, G. Chu, X. Zhang, and X. Shen, “Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer MoS2 on sapphire, Si and GaN substrates,” Superlattices Microstruct. 120, 235–240 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X.-F. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chuen, Y.-L.

Chun, Y. T.

J.-Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. Li, T. Zhang, J. Wang, P. K. Shrestha, and D. Chu, “Broadband MoS2 field-effect phototransistors: ultrasensitive visible-light photoresponse and negative infrared photoresponse,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705880 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cronin, S. B.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, Z. Li, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, H. Wang, S. B. Cronin, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

Y. Wan, J. Xiao, J. Li, X. Fang, K. Zhang, L. Fu, P. Li, Z. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Zhao, J. Lu, N. Tang, G. Ran, X. Zhang, Y. Ye, and L. Dai, “Epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on GaN with enhanced valley helicity,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1703888 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z.

Y. Zhang, C.-K. Lim, Z. Dai, G. Yu, J. W. Haus, H. Zhang, and P. N. Prasad, “Photonics and optoelectronics using nano-structured hybrid perovskite media and their optical cavities,” Phys. Rep. 795, 1–51 (2019).
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Q. Ou, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. Wang, Z. Dai, W. Li, C. Zheng, Z.-Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Davydov, V. Y.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, and A. N. Smirnov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Deng, W.

S. Li, X. Chen, F. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Liu, W. Deng, B. An, F. Chu, G. Zhang, S. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Enhanced performance of a CVD MoS2 photodetector by chemical in situ n-type doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 11636–11644 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

X. Ling, Y. Lee, Y. Lin, W. Fang, L. Yu, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Role of the seeding promoter in MoS2 growth by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14, 464–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, B.

H. Shan, Y. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Luo, S. Zu, B. Du, T. Han, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Wu, F. Lin, K. Shi, B. Tay, Z. Liu, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Direct observation of ultrafast plasmonic hot electron transfer in the strong coupling regime,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Duhm, S.

Q. Ou, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. Wang, Z. Dai, W. Li, C. Zheng, Z.-Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dumcenco, D.

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eda, G.

J. Wang, I. Verzhbitskiy, and G. Eda, “Electroluminescent devices based on 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1802687 (2018).
[Crossref]

Elías, A. L.

N. Perea-López, Z. Lin, N. R. Pradhan, A. Iñiguez-Rábago, A. L. Elías, A. McCreary, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, H. Terrones, L. Bali, and M. Terrones, “CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 as an effective photosensor operating at low-voltage,” 2D Mater. 1, 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evans, B. L.

R. Murray and B. L. Evans, “The thermal expansion of 2H-MoS2 and 2H-WSe2 between 10 and 320 K,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12, 312–315 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

R. Cao, H. Wang, Z. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Zhang, Q. Xiao, Y. Zhang, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

X. Ling, Y. Lee, Y. Lin, W. Fang, L. Yu, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Role of the seeding promoter in MoS2 growth by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14, 464–472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Y. Wan, J. Xiao, J. Li, X. Fang, K. Zhang, L. Fu, P. Li, Z. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Zhao, J. Lu, N. Tang, G. Ran, X. Zhang, Y. Ye, and L. Dai, “Epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on GaN with enhanced valley helicity,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1703888 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

H. Shan, Y. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Luo, S. Zu, B. Du, T. Han, B. Li, Y. Li, J. Wu, F. Lin, K. Shi, B. Tay, Z. Liu, X. Zhu, and Z. Fang, “Direct observation of ultrafast plasmonic hot electron transfer in the strong coupling regime,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feng, W.

P. Hu, L. Wang, M. Yoon, J. Zhang, W. Feng, X. Wang, Z. Wen, J. C. Idrobo, Y. Miyamoto, D. B. Geohegan, and K. Xiao, “Highly responsive ultrathin GaS nanosheet photodetectors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Nano Lett. 13, 1649–1654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Filippidis, L.

H. Siegle, G. Kaczmarczyk, L. Filippidis, A. P. Litvinchuk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Zone-boundary phonons in hexagonal and cubic GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7000–7004 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

Y. Wan, J. Xiao, J. Li, X. Fang, K. Zhang, L. Fu, P. Li, Z. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Zhao, J. Lu, N. Tang, G. Ran, X. Zhang, Y. Ye, and L. Dai, “Epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on GaN with enhanced valley helicity,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1703888 (2018).
[Crossref]

Galli, G. L.

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C.-Y. Chim, G. L. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10, 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gamage, S.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, Z. Li, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, H. Wang, S. B. Cronin, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499, 419–425 (2013).
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Geohegan, D. B.

P. Hu, L. Wang, M. Yoon, J. Zhang, W. Feng, X. Wang, Z. Wen, J. C. Idrobo, Y. Miyamoto, D. B. Geohegan, and K. Xiao, “Highly responsive ultrathin GaS nanosheet photodetectors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Nano Lett. 13, 1649–1654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gibertini, M.

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gillet, P.

D. Dumcenco, D. Ovchinnikov, K. Marinov, P. Lazi, M. Gibertini, N. Marzari, O. L. Sanchez, Y.-C. Kung, D. Krasnozhon, M.-W. Chen, S. Bertolazzi, P. Gillet, A. F. I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Large-area epitaxial monolayer MoS2,” ACS Nano 9, 4611–4620 (2015).
[Crossref]

Goel, N.

N. Goel, R. Kumar, B. Roul, M. Kumar, and S. B. Krupanidhi, “Wafer-scale synthesis of a uniform film of few-layer MoS2 on GaN for 2D heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D 51, 374003 (2018).
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Goncharuk, I. N.

V. Y. Davydov, Y. E. Kitaev, I. N. Goncharuk, and A. N. Smirnov, “Phonon dispersion and Raman scattering in hexagonal GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12899 (1998).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Illustration of the SL MoS2-on-GaN structure. (b) Due to the electron-phonon coupling between MoS2 and GaN, the calculated absorption coefficient of the SL MoS2 layer is increased significantly in the visible region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Illustration of SL MoS2 growth process by CVD under Ar atmosphere. The FS-GaN substrate was placed upside down on the center of the crucible, and the SL-MoS2 was grown on the Ga-face. The growth condition was 750°C lasting for 10 min. (b) Raman spectrum of SL-MoS2 on FS-GaN. (c) Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the MoS2 grown on the GaN substrate. The measured MoS2 film thickness is 0.7  nm, indicating a single layer of MoS2. (d) Absorbance of SL MoS2 on the FS-GaN substrate as a function of incident wavelength. The strongest absorption is at around 430 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic diagram of the preparation steps of monolithic integration of GaN-based UV detectors and MoS2-based visible detectors. Photoresist was used for mask, and part of the SL MoS2 was etched by Ar plasma. Standard photolithography was applied, and a 50 nm Au electrode was fabricated by electron beam evaporation for the whole wafer. (b) Optical microscope image of monolithic integration of GaN-based and MoS2-based detectors. The reference scale in the image is 100 μm. (c) 3D schematic view of the MoS2/GaN monolithic integration device. Top view photo image of 1  cm×1  cm size sample fabricated is shown in the inset.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Dark current and light current for 280 nm incident light under different powers of the GaN PD. (b) Dark current and light current for a 405 nm laser under different incident powers of the MoS2 PD.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Responsivity R (A/W) and photocurrent (μA), (b) photoconductive gain G and external quantum efficiency (EQE), and (c) noise equivalent power (NEP) and normalized detectivity D* of the GaN PD as functions of incident power under a fixed voltage of 20 V. (d) Responsivity R (A/W) and photocurrent (mA), (e) photoconductive gain G and external quantum efficiency (EQE), and (f) noise equivalent power (NEP) and normalized detectivity D* of the MoS2 PD as functions of incident power under a fixed voltage of 3 V.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Photocurrent as a function of time under alternative dark and illumination. (a) Photocurrent-time curve of GaN illuminated by a 280 nm light source with the incident power of 15.01 nW at 20 V. (b) The rise time (from 10% to 90% of maximum photocurrent) and the fall time (from 90% to 10% of maximum photocurrent) of the GaN PD. (c) Photocurrent-time curve of MoS2/GaN illuminated by a 405 nm laser with the incident power of 10 mW at 3 V. (d) The rise and fall time of the MoS2/GaN PD.