Abstract

We report a passively Q-switched and mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on PtSe2, a new two-dimensional material, as a saturable absorber (SA). Self-started Q-switching at 1560 nm in the EDFL was achieved at a threshold pump power of 65 mW, and at the maximum pump power of 450 mW, the maximum single Q-switched pulse energy is 143.2 nJ. Due to the polarization-dependent characteristics of the PtSe2-based SA, the laser can be switched from the Q-switched state to the mode-locked state by adjusting the polarization state. A mode-locked pulse train with a repetition rate of 23.3 MHz and a pulse width of 1.02 ps can be generated when the pump power increases to about 80 mW, and the stable mode-locked state is maintained until the pump power reaches its maximum 450 mW. The maximum single mode-locked pulse energy is 0.53 nJ. This is the first time to our knowledge that successful generation of stable Q-switched and mode-locked pulses in an Er-doped fiber laser has been obtained by using PtSe2 as a saturable absorber.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (4)

Y. Zhao, J. Qiao, Z. Yu, P. Yu, K. Xu, S. P. Lau, W. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, W. Ji, and Y. Chai, “High-electron-mobility and air-stable 2D layered PtSe2 FETs,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604230 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. X. Zhang, J. T. Qin, Z. S. Huang, and W. L. Zhang, “The mechanism of layer number and strain dependent bandgap of 2D crystal PtSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 122, 205701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sattar and U. Schwingenschlögl, “Electronic properties of graphene–PtSe2 contacts,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 15809–15813 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, H. Chen, J. D. Yin, Z. H. Xu, J. R. Li, Z. K. Jiang, W. F. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. P. Sun, and S. C. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9, 1871–1877 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

P. F. Li, L. Li, and X. C. Zeng, “Tuning the electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer PtSe2 via strain engineering,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 3106–3112 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, M. Engel, D. B. Farmer, S. Han, and H.-S. P. Wong, “High-performance p-type black phosphorus transistor with scandium contact,” ACS Nano 10, 4672–4677 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Computational search for two-dimensional MX2 semiconductors with possible high electron mobility at room temperature,” Materials 9, 716–729 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on silver nanoparticles as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Z. Wang, L. Zhan, M. Qin, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. Zou, and K. Qian, “Passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber lasers using alcohol,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4857–4861 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Wang, L. F. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, L. L. Wang, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. P. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95  GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, A. J. Liu, Y. S. Chen, H. Chen, S. C. Ruan, C. Y. Guo, S. F. Chen, I. L. Li, H. P. Yang, J. G. Hu, and G. Z. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

H. Liu, A. Luo, F. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. Luo, W. Xu, C. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. X. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, W. L. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional semiconductors with possible high room temperature mobility,” Nano Res. 7, 1731–1737 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. D. Han, X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, G. X. Wang, C. Zeng, and L. Yun, “Simultaneous picosecond and femtosecond solitons delivered from a nanotube-mode-locked all-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1565–1568 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, Y. G. Wang, Y. S. Wang, W. Zhao, X. C. Yu, Z. P. Sun, X. P. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 17227–17235 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee and H. S. Suh, “Near infrared standard sources, generated by electro-optic frequency comb, using injection-locked DFB laser,” Opt. Commun. 312, 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1986–1991 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, and G. R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. D. Chen, Z. B. Liu, C. Y. Zheng, F. Xing, X. Q. Yan, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “High-quality and efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto different substrates,” Carbon 56, 271–278 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Wang and C. Q. Xu, “Actively Q-switched fiber lasers: switching dynamics and nonlinear processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 31, 131–216 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 721–727 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Abid, M.

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Avsar, A.

A. Ciarrocchi, A. Avsar, D. Ovchinnikov, and A. Kis, “Thickness-modulated metal-to-semiconductor transformation in a transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 919 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Berner, N. C.

M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, C. Motta, J.-Y. Zheng, N. C. Berner, J. Kotakoski, K. Elibol, T. J. Pennycook, J. C. Meyer, C. Yim, M. Abid, T. Hallam, J. F. Donegan, S. Sanvito, and G. S. Duesberg, “Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films,” 2D Mater. 3, 021004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.-H.

Cai, Z.

Cao, G. Z.

Chai, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Qiao, Z. Yu, P. Yu, K. Xu, S. P. Lau, W. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, W. Ji, and Y. Chai, “High-electron-mobility and air-stable 2D layered PtSe2 FETs,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604230 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Y. Q. Ge, Z. F. Zhu, Y. H. Xu, Y. X. Chen, S. Chen, Z. M. Liang, Y. F. Song, Y. S. Zou, H. B. Zeng, S. X. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. F.

Chen, S.-P.

Chen, X. D.

X. D. Chen, Z. B. Liu, C. Y. Zheng, F. Xing, X. Q. Yan, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “High-quality and efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto different substrates,” Carbon 56, 271–278 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. S.

P. G. Yan, A. J. Liu, Y. S. Chen, H. Chen, S. C. Ruan, C. Y. Guo, S. F. Chen, I. L. Li, H. P. Yang, J. G. Hu, and G. Z. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. D. Chen, Z. B. Liu, C. Y. Zheng, F. Xing, X. Q. Yan, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “High-quality and efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto different substrates,” Carbon 56, 271–278 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

Y. Q. Ge, Z. F. Zhu, Y. H. Xu, Y. X. Chen, S. Chen, Z. M. Liang, Y. F. Song, Y. S. Zou, H. B. Zeng, S. X. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear photoresponse of 2D TiS2 for ultrashort pulse generation and all-optical thresholding devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701166 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, X. P.

Cheng, Z.

Y. L. Wang, L. F. Li, W. Yao, S. Song, J. T. Sun, J. Pan, X. Ren, C. Li, E. Okunishi, Y. Wang, E. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Y. Zhang, H. Yang, E. F. Schwier, H. Iwasawa, K. Shimada, M. Taniguchi, Z. Cheng, S. Zhou, S. Du, S. J. Pennycook, S. T. Pantelides, and H. Gao, “Monolayer PtSe2, a new semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide, epitaxially grown by direct selenization of Pt,” Nano Lett. 15, 4013–4018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

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Luo, Z.

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A. Ciarrocchi, A. Avsar, D. Ovchinnikov, and A. Kis, “Thickness-modulated metal-to-semiconductor transformation in a transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 919 (2018).
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Qin, J. T.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) AFM image of the CVD-grown PtSe2 film on the sapphire substrate. The red curve shows the thickness along the white dashed line. (b) Representative Raman spectrum of PtSe2 film taken at a 514 nm excitation wavelength. (c) Absorption spectrum of the PtSe2 film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Structure of the PtSe2-based SA. (b) Optical image and optical microscope image (inset) of the PtSe2-based SA. (c) Nonlinear optical transmission of TE mode in PtSe2-based SA. (d) Nonlinear optical transmission of TM mode in the PtSe2-based SA.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Structure of the PtSe2-SA-based EDFL. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; EDF, Er-doped fiber; OC, optical coupler; PI-ISO, polarization-independent isolator; PC, polarization controller; SA, saturable absorber.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Output pulse train, (b) single pulse profile, and (c) optical spectrum of the Q-switching EDFL at a pump power of 445 mW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Pulse repetition rate and pulse width versus pump power. (b) Average output power and single pulse energy vary with pump power.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Output pulse train, (b) the measured autocorrelation trace and its fitted curve, (c) optical spectrum (inset, long-term 3 dB spectral bandwidth fluctuation of the laser), and (d) RF spectrum of the mode-locked EDFL.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Saturable Absorption Properties for Different Nanomaterial-Based SAs at 1.5 μm and Mode-Locked Lasing Output Properties Based on Them

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