Abstract

Safe detection of an arbitrarily shaped platform is critical for survivability, rescue, or navigation safety in a remote region. Metasurfaces afford great potential due to their strong electromagnetic (EM) wave control. However, studies have mainly focused on the physics and design of metasurfaces on planar plates, which does not satisfy the current requirements of aerodynamics and aesthetics. Herein, we propose a sophisticated strategy to design a metasurface that can wrap over arbitrarily shaped objects with moderate curvature on which optical aberrations are commonly introduced. By designing each meta-atom on the basis of the required position and phase compensation, exact EM wavefronts are restored. For verification, several conformal metasurfaces were designed and numerically studied on metallic cylinders at the microwave spectrum. A proof-of-concept device is fabricated and is experimentally characterized. The results demonstrate the availability of the desirable dual-beam superscatterer with strong backscattering enhancement toward two directions, thus indicating that the distortions induced by an arbitrary platform can be efficiently corrected. Our method affords an efficient alternative for designing high-performance multifunctional optoelectronic devices equipped on a moderately curved platform.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (1)

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

X. Ling, X. Zhou, K. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Qiu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Recent advances in the spin Hall effect of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 066401 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-independent backscattering enhancement of cylinders based on conformal gradient metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, X. Ling, W. Luo, and L. Zhou, “Flexible control of highly-directive emissions based on bifunctional metasurfaces with low polarization cross-talking,” Ann. Phys. 529, 1700045 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Sun, H. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Dubois, C. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A thin and conformal metasurface for illusion acoustics of rapidly changing profiles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 151902 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24, 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, and J. Teng, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, X. Yi, W. Shu, Y. Liu, S. Chen, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Giant photonic spin Hall effect in momentum space in a structured metamaterial with spatially varying birefringence,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e290 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, S. Chen, Y. Ke, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Photonic spin Hall effect in dielectric metasurfaces with rotational symmetry breaking,” Opt. Lett. 40, 756–759 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin Hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. M. Wang, K. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Superscatterer illusions without using complementary media,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 572–580 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, and C. Qiu, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. J. Wang, D. J. Triplett, and C. J. Stevens, “Broadband/multiband conformal circular beam-steering array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 3338–3346 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, and C. Qiu, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, T.

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24, 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
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S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, and C. Qiu, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref]

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F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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Kenney, M.

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L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

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X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
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Li, J.

S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. B.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
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S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
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X. Ling, X. Zhou, K. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Qiu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Recent advances in the spin Hall effect of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 066401 (2017).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24, 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. M. Wang, K. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Superscatterer illusions without using complementary media,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 572–580 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, S. Chen, Y. Ke, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Photonic spin Hall effect in dielectric metasurfaces with rotational symmetry breaking,” Opt. Lett. 40, 756–759 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, X. Yi, W. Shu, Y. Liu, S. Chen, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Giant photonic spin Hall effect in momentum space in a structured metamaterial with spatially varying birefringence,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e290 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, F.

H.-X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, and C. Qiu, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, and J. Teng, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, and J. Teng, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Dubois, C. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A thin and conformal metasurface for illusion acoustics of rapidly changing profiles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 151902 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, X. Ling, W. Luo, and L. Zhou, “Flexible control of highly-directive emissions based on bifunctional metasurfaces with low polarization cross-talking,” Ann. Phys. 529, 1700045 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Sun, H. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin Hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

X. Ling, X. Zhou, K. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Qiu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Recent advances in the spin Hall effect of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 066401 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, X. Yi, W. Shu, Y. Liu, S. Chen, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Giant photonic spin Hall effect in momentum space in a structured metamaterial with spatially varying birefringence,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e290 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, S. Chen, Y. Ke, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Photonic spin Hall effect in dielectric metasurfaces with rotational symmetry breaking,” Opt. Lett. 40, 756–759 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y.

ACS Photon. (1)

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic approach to achieve broadband polarization-independent diffusive scatterings based on metasurfaces,” ACS Photon. 5, 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, and J. Li, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26, 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, and J. Teng, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (4)

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic spin Hall effect with nearly 100% efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. M. Wang, K. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Superscatterer illusions without using complementary media,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 572–580 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, M. Kenney, F. Liu, T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, and J. Li, “Helicity-preserving omnidirectional plasmonic mirror,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 654–658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, X. Ling, W. Luo, and L. Zhou, “Flexible control of highly-directive emissions based on bifunctional metasurfaces with low polarization cross-talking,” Ann. Phys. 529, 1700045 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Dubois, C. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A thin and conformal metasurface for illusion acoustics of rapidly changing profiles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 151902 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-independent backscattering enhancement of cylinders based on conformal gradient metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wang, D. J. Triplett, and C. J. Stevens, “Broadband/multiband conformal circular beam-steering array,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 3338–3346 (2006).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65, 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (3)

X. Ling, X. Zhou, X. Yi, W. Shu, Y. Liu, S. Chen, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Giant photonic spin Hall effect in momentum space in a structured metamaterial with spatially varying birefringence,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e290 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14, 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, and G. Guo, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (4)

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, and C. Qiu, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

W. Luo, S. Sun, H. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces with nearly 100% efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041042 (2014).
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Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

X. Ling, X. Zhou, K. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Qiu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Recent advances in the spin Hall effect of light,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 066401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Yang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, B. Jin, and W. Liu, “Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26875 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. Wang, T. Cai, H. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (6)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340, 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. Josefsson and P. Persson, Conformal Array Antenna Theory and Design (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Conceptual illustration of the proposed conformal metasurface. (a) Schematic functionality under the illumination of a CP wave or an LP wave with arbitrary polarization. (b) Typical scattering pattern of a metallic cylinder. (c) Phase compensation inspired by the ray-tracing approach to restore two symmetric planar wavefronts.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Topology and EM properties of the broadband PB meta-atom. (a) Element structure. EM response under illumination of (b) an x/y-polarized LP wave, and CP waves of (c) normal and (d) oblique incidence. The geometrical parameters are optimized and detailed as lx=6, ly=7.5, lx1=3.8, ly1=2, w1=1, w2=0.5, h1=0.06, and h2=4  mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Numerical characterization of three dipole arrays, each forming a half-circle with R0=99.06  mm to mimic a conformal metasurface. The radiation or scattering intensity at each frequency is first normalized to the total energy across the entire illumination region [P¯(ϕr,fi)=P(ϕr,fi)/ϕr=90°ϕr=90°P(ϕr,fi)] and then normalized to the maximum intensity max[P¯(ϕr,fi)]. Three dipole arrays are considered: directional radiation at ϕ=±45° (case 1), high-efficiency anomalous radiation at ϕ=±arcsin(λ/Np) (case 2), and deteriorative radiation (case 3). In cases 1 and 2, the phases are exactly designed. However, in case 3, no phase correction is applied. (a) Topology of the dipole array; inset shows the typical 3D radiation pattern in case 2. (b) Corresponding exciting phases of each dipole in three cases. Far-field radiation power intensity of three dipole arrays in (c) case 1, (d) case 2, and (e) case 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Numerical characterization of conformal metasurfaces on a cylinder with R0=156  mm. (a) Metasurface topology. (b) Numerically calculated full wave. (b) 3D and (c) 2D scattering power intensity in CST Microwave Studio. In the simulation setup, there is only one meta-atom along the z axis, and the periodic boundary is assigned to mimic an infinitely high metasurface. The remaining four walls are assigned as the open boundary. For a comprehensive study, the metasurface is designed at different f0 values of 18, 15, and 10 GHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Numerical characterization of conformal metasurfaces on cylinders with R0=156 and R0=95  mm. The geometrical parameters of the utilized basic meta-atom are detailed as lx=6, ly=7.5, lx1=4, ly1=4, w1=1, w2=0.5, h1=0.06, and h2=4  mm. The conformal metasurface is designed at different f0 of 10, 12, and 15 GHz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Numerically calculated RCSs of the conformal metasurface, cylinder, and planar plate that varies with the scattering angles and frequencies. The conformal metasurface wrapping over the cylinder of R0=156  mm is designed at 10 GHz.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimental characterization of a conformal metasurface wrapped on a cylinder with an R0=95  mm. (a) Photograph of the fabricated sample and angle-resolved bistatic RCS measurement setup. (b) Copolarized and (c) cross-polarized scattering component of the superscatterer. (d) Comparison of the efficiency between experiments and numerical calculations. The efficiency is defined as the ratio of anomalously reflected dual-beam intensity [(ϕi0+ϕi1)/290°P(ϕ)dϕ+90°(ϕi0ϕi1)/2P(ϕ)dϕ] and totally reflected energy [90°90°P(ϕ)dϕ] obtained by integrating the scattered-field intensity across the azimuth. Here, ϕi0 and ϕi1 are the reflection angles of the normal and anomalous modes, respectively. The aforementioned definition of efficiency measures the effectiveness of wavefront restoration. The stronger the dual-beam intensity, the less energy is dispersed to other directions, and the higher efficiency is due to energy conservation. (e) Cross-polarized scattering intensity of the bare metallic cylinder.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured RCSs of the bare metallic cylinder and the conformal superscatterer at six selected frequencies of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 GHz.

Equations (2)

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φC(i)=k0·2Δdi=4πRo/λ0·{1cos{arcsin[(i1)p/R0]}}.
φ(i)=22πR0/λ0{1cos{ϕ0arcsin[(i1)p/R0]}}·sin{ϕ0arcsin[(i1)p/R0]}.

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