Abstract

In this work, we show how fiber-based terahertz systems can be robustly configured for accurate terahertz ellipsometry. To this end, we explain how our algorithms can be successfully applied to achieve accurate spectroscopic ellipsometry with a high tolerance on the imperfect polarizer extinction ratio and pulse shift errors. Highly accurate characterization of transparent, absorptive, and conductive samples comprehensively demonstrates the versatility of our algorithms. The improved accuracy we achieve is a fundamental breakthrough for reflection-based measurements and overcomes the hurdle of phase uncertainty.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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  36. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
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  37. M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  38. I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R160 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. Yang, C. Chang, P. Chen, and P. Yu, “Broadband terahertz conductivity and optical transmission of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanomaterials,” Opt. Express 21, 16670–16682 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. T. Wang, M. Zalkovskij, K. Iwaszczuk, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. V. Naik, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 566–575 (2015).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4, A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

Z. Huang, E. P. J. Parrott, H. Park, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “High extinction ratio and low transmission loss thin-film terahertz polarizer with a tunable bilayer metal wire-grid structure,” Opt. Lett. 39, 793–796 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Neshat and N. Armitage, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry: instrumentation and calibration,” Opt. Express 20, 29063–29075 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Matsumoto, T. Hosokura, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of the dielectric constant of thin films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 265–267 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

I. Pupeza, R. Wilk, and M. Koch, “Highly accurate optical material parameter determination with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 4335–4350 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, G. Kim, and S. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

2005 (2)

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J. Dai, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy characterization of the far-infrared absorption and index of refraction of high-resistivity, float-zone silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1379–1386 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of complex optical constants of a highly doped Si wafer using terahertz ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917–3919 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1562–1571 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R160 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, A. T.

Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Armitage, N.

Ashworth, P. C.

Baraniuk, R. G.

Boccara, A. C.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

Boosalis, A.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cella, N.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. P.

Chandrashekhar, M.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

C. Yang, C. Chang, P. Chen, and P. Yu, “Broadband terahertz conductivity and optical transmission of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanomaterials,” Opt. Express 21, 16670–16682 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, P. Tekavec, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A novel method for accurate THz ellipsometry,” in 42nd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2017), pp. 1–2.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, L.

Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Dawlaty, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dorney, T. D.

Duschek, L.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

El Rhaleb, H.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4, A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fattinger, C.

Fischer, B. M.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fournier, D.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
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Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

George, P. A.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
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I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R160 (1986).
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Ha, T.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Haglund, R. F.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
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Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R160 (1986).
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N. Matsumoto, T. Hosokura, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of the dielectric constant of thin films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 265–267 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of complex optical constants of a highly doped Si wafer using terahertz ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917–3919 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, S.

Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Herzinger, C. M.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hirori, H.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, T.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hosokura, T.

Huang, S.

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Ino, Y.

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iwaszczuk, K.

Jacobsen, R. H.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
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Jahn, D.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.

Y. Jin, G. Kim, and S. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Jepsen, P. U.

T. Wang, M. Zalkovskij, K. Iwaszczuk, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. V. Naik, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 566–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, G. Kim, and S. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Kadlec, F.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kan, K. W. C.

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

Y. Jin, G. Kim, and S. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Kim, J.

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, R. Wilk, and M. Koch, “Highly accurate optical material parameter determination with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 4335–4350 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kužel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

T. Wang, M. Zalkovskij, K. Iwaszczuk, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. V. Naik, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 566–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lopez, R.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lucarini, V.

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Malureanu, R.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, N.

Member, S.

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

Morikawa, O.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagashima, T.

N. Matsumoto, T. Hosokura, T. Nagashima, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of the dielectric constant of thin films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 265–267 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of complex optical constants of a highly doped Si wafer using terahertz ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917–3919 (2001).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

Nashima, S.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nemec, H.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neshat, M.

Novitsky, A.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Otani, C.

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ouchi, T.

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Parrott, E. P. J.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4, A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, E. P. J. Parrott, H. Park, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “High extinction ratio and low transmission loss thin-film terahertz polarizer with a tunable bilayer metal wire-grid structure,” Opt. Lett. 39, 793–796 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, P. Tekavec, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A novel method for accurate THz ellipsometry,” in 42nd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2017), pp. 1–2.

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peiponen, K. E.

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4, A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, E. P. J. Parrott, H. Park, H. P. Chan, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “High extinction ratio and low transmission loss thin-film terahertz polarizer with a tunable bilayer metal wire-grid structure,” Opt. Lett. 39, 793–796 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, P. Tekavec, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A novel method for accurate THz ellipsometry,” in 42nd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2017), pp. 1–2.

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popescu, A.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pupeza, I.

Pye, R. J.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rana, F.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roger, J. P.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

Savastru, D.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shieh, J.

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shimano, R.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shivaraman, S.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spencer, M. G.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Strait, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suh, J. Y.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Svirko, Y. P.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takata, K.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tekavec, P.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, P. Tekavec, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A novel method for accurate THz ellipsometry,” in 42nd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2017), pp. 1–2.

Thoman, A.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tiwald, T. E.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S. Y.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4, A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S.-Y.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. S.-Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Freeze-thaw hysteresis effects in terahertz imaging of biomedical tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 4711–4717 (2016).
[Crossref]

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
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Vartiainen, E. M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. C. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 3848–3854 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilk, R.

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Withayachumnankul, W.

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, K.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, M.

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yeung, D. K. W.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

C. Yang, C. Chang, P. Chen, and P. Yu, “Broadband terahertz conductivity and optical transmission of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanomaterials,” Opt. Express 21, 16670–16682 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zalkovskij, M.

T. Wang, M. Zalkovskij, K. Iwaszczuk, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. V. Naik, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 566–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. H.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zoffmann Bisgaard, C.

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zuber, A.

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Nagashima and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of complex optical constants of a highly doped Si wafer using terahertz ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3917–3919 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Yamashita, H. Takahashi, T. Ouchi, and C. Otani, “Ultra-broadband terahertz time-domain ellipsometric spectroscopy utilizing GaP and GaSe emitters and an epitaxial layer transferred photoconductive detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051103 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zalkovskij, C. Zoffmann Bisgaard, A. Novitsky, R. Malureanu, D. Savastru, A. Popescu, P. Uhd Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. U. Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Chemical THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Chen, Y. Lin, C. Chang, P. Yu, J. Shieh, C. Pan, and S. Member, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and dielectric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1746–1754 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S.-Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A robust baseline and reference modification and acquisition algorithm for accurate THz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7, 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Soltani, D. Jahn, L. Duschek, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Withayachumnankul, “Attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: uncertainty analysis and reduction scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 32–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

Y. Ogawa, L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, and K. Fukunaga, “Attenuated total reflection spectra of aqueous glycine in the terahertz region,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 117–121 (2009).
[Crossref]

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E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K. E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
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I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R160 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophoton. 10, 1143–1151 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

Y. Jin, G. Kim, and S. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373–10379 (1996).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in time domain using terahertz coherent pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1287–L1289 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Lucarini, Y. Ino, K. E. Peiponen, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Detection and correction of the misplacement error in terahertz spectroscopy by application of singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 3–8 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
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M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658–1665 (2007).
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A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Hofmann, C. M. Herzinger, A. Boosalis, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. El Rhaleb, N. Cella, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, and A. Zuber, “Beam size and collimation effects in spectroscopic ellipsometry of transparent films with optical thickness inhomogeneity,” Thin Solid Films 288, 125–131 (1996).
[Crossref]

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X. Chen, “THz-ellipsometry-algorithm,” https://github.com/swenchchen/THz-ellipsometry-algorithm .

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, P. Tekavec, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “A novel method for accurate THz ellipsometry,” in 42nd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2017), pp. 1–2.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram; (b) picture of the designed fiber-based THz-TDS ellipsometer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. RE as a function of θ when ρtheory=0.1 and σ1=σ2=0.5°.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Flow chart of the algorithm steps.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Characterized k(ω) as a function of frequency.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Illustration of the E fields and the related directions considered in the algorithm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measured Ers, Erp, Eβ (multiplied by a factor of 10) and the calibrated Erp and Ers, with the measured and calibrated Erp zoom in the inset; (b) Diff as a function of pulse shift τp and τβ; (c) measured and calculated Eβ by the calibrated Ers and Erp.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) tanΨ; (b) Δ; (c) refractive index; (d) absorption coefficient of HR-Si calculated by the calibrated and uncalibrated ellipsometry data, compared with the transmission results.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Refractive index and (b) absorption coefficient of Glaverbel glass characterized by ellipsometry and transmission.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Complex refractive index and complex conductivity of thin-film ITO. The circles are the experimental data, and the solid curves are the Drude-model fitting results by the data in the yellow region.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=tanΨexp(iΔ)=Erp(ω)Ers(ω)=rpEip(ω)rsEis(ω)=rprs.
RE(θ)=max(|ρerrorρcorrect||ρcorrect|),
ρcorrect=ErpcorrectErscorrect·sinθcosθ=ρtheory·EicosθEisinθ·sinθcosθ=ρtheory,ρerror=ErperrorErserror·sinθcosθ=ρtheory·Eicos(θ±σ1)·cosσ2±Eisin(θ±σ1)·sinσ2Eisin(θ±σ1)·cosσ2±ρtheory·Eicos(θ±σ1)·sinσ2·sinθcosθ.
σ^=σriσi=iωϵ0(ϵ^rϵ),