Abstract

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser (EDFL) by using gold nanostars (GNSs) as a saturable absorber (SA) for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. In comparison with other gold nanomorphologies, GNSs have multiple localized surface plasmon resonances, which means that they can be used to construct wideband ultrafast pulse lasers. By inserting the GNS SA into an EDFL cavity pumped by a 980 nm laser diode, a stable passively Q-switched laser at 1564.5 nm was achieved for a threshold pump power of 40 mW. By gradually increasing the pump power from 40 to 120 mW, the pulse duration decreases from 12.8 to 5.3 μs and the repetition rate increases from 10 to 17 kHz. Our results indicate that the GNSs are a promising SA for constructing pulse lasers.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Y. L. Qi, R. Tang, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 26, 065105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, B. Zhai, R. G. Lu, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Hua, K. Chandra, D. M. Dam, G. P. Wiederrecht, and T. W. Odom, “Shape-dependent nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4904–4908 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. H. Park, H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. Yeom, “Monolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 23, 19806–19812 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, J. Lee, W. Shin, and J. H. Lee, “Large energy, all-fiberized Q-switched pulse laser using a GNRs/PVA saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 1859–1867 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635  nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23, 24071–24076 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Wang, L. Zhan, M. L. Qin, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Zou, and K. Qian, “Passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser using alcohol,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4857–4861 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. Fan, C. Mou, X. Bai, S. Wang, N. Chen, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using evanescent field interaction with gold-nanosphere based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 18537–18542 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Shi, Q. Fang, X. S. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Fiber lasers and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 53, 6554–6568 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. J. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, X. Y. Guo, Z. X. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1986–1991 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. T. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, A. M. Fales, and T. Vo-Dinh, “TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars: enhanced intracellular delivery and efficient NIR photothermal therapy using ultralow irradiance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 11358–11361 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a grapheme-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4008–4010 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. K. Dondapati, T. K. Sau, C. Hrelescu, T. A. Klar, F. D. Stefani, and J. Feldmann, “Label-free biosensing based on single gold nanostars as plasmonic transducers,” ACS Nano 4, 6318–6322 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. G. Khoury and T. Vo-Dinh, “Gold nanostars for surface-enchanced Raman scattering: synthesis, characterization and optimization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18849–18859 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. S. Kumar, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars,” Nanotechnology 19, 015606 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Feng, L. Colleen, H. Jason, and N. Peter, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7, 729–732 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent development in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

C. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

Bao, Q. L.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Chandra, K.

Y. Hua, K. Chandra, D. M. Dam, G. P. Wiederrecht, and T. W. Odom, “Shape-dependent nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4904–4908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. T. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. T.

X. Chen, Y. T. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

Colleen, L.

H. Feng, L. Colleen, H. Jason, and N. Peter, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7, 729–732 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dam, D. M.

Y. Hua, K. Chandra, D. M. Dam, G. P. Wiederrecht, and T. W. Odom, “Shape-dependent nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4904–4908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dondapati, S. K.

S. K. Dondapati, T. K. Sau, C. Hrelescu, T. A. Klar, F. D. Stefani, and J. Feldmann, “Label-free biosensing based on single gold nanostars as plasmonic transducers,” ACS Nano 4, 6318–6322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fales, A. M.

H. Yuan, A. M. Fales, and T. Vo-Dinh, “TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars: enhanced intracellular delivery and efficient NIR photothermal therapy using ultralow irradiance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 11358–11361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Fang, Q.

Feldmann, J.

S. K. Dondapati, T. K. Sau, C. Hrelescu, T. A. Klar, F. D. Stefani, and J. Feldmann, “Label-free biosensing based on single gold nanostars as plasmonic transducers,” ACS Nano 4, 6318–6322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

H. Feng, L. Colleen, H. Jason, and N. Peter, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7, 729–732 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. J. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Filippov, V. N.

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[Crossref]

Tang, R.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Y. L. Qi, R. Tang, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 26, 065105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, Q. J.

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vo-Dinh, T.

H. Yuan, A. M. Fales, and T. Vo-Dinh, “TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars: enhanced intracellular delivery and efficient NIR photothermal therapy using ultralow irradiance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 11358–11361 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. G. Khoury and T. Vo-Dinh, “Gold nanostars for surface-enchanced Raman scattering: synthesis, characterization and optimization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18849–18859 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. Q.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Y. L. Qi, R. Tang, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 26, 065105 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. R.

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. S.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. Q.

Wang, Z. T.

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weng, J.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Y. Hua, K. Chandra, D. M. Dam, G. P. Wiederrecht, and T. W. Odom, “Shape-dependent nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4904–4908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

Wu, J.

Wu, S.

Xiao, Q. L.

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Xu, W. C.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Y. L. Qi, R. Tang, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 26, 065105 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, X. Y. Guo, Z. X. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1986–1991 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. H.

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xue, J. P.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y. Z.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. T. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. J.

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q. H.

Yang, R. Y.

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D.

Yu, X. F.

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.

H. Yuan, A. M. Fales, and T. Vo-Dinh, “TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars: enhanced intracellular delivery and efficient NIR photothermal therapy using ultralow irradiance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 11358–11361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zdrojek, M.

C. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zhai, B.

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, B. Zhai, R. G. Lu, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, B. T.

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, B. Zhai, R. G. Lu, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Z. Q. Wang, L. Zhan, M. L. Qin, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Zou, and K. Qian, “Passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser using alcohol,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4857–4861 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. J. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, D.

Z. Kang, X. Y. Guo, Z. X. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1986–1991 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R. W.

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D. P.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X. S.

Zhu, Y. F.

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z. X.

ACS Nano (3)

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Dondapati, T. K. Sau, C. Hrelescu, T. A. Klar, F. D. Stefani, and J. Feldmann, “Label-free biosensing based on single gold nanostars as plasmonic transducers,” ACS Nano 4, 6318–6322 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. T. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Xu, Z. T. Wang, Z. N. Guo, H. Huang, Q. L. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 161107 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, X. C. Su, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Sun, H. K. Nie, B. T. Zhang, and K. J. Yang, “Tunable high-power Q-switched fiber laser based on BP-PVA saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0900405 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Yuan, A. M. Fales, and T. Vo-Dinh, “TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars: enhanced intracellular delivery and efficient NIR photothermal therapy using ultralow irradiance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 11358–11361 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. G. Khoury and T. Vo-Dinh, “Gold nanostars for surface-enchanced Raman scattering: synthesis, characterization and optimization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18849–18859 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

Y. Hua, K. Chandra, D. M. Dam, G. P. Wiederrecht, and T. W. Odom, “Shape-dependent nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 4904–4908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Y. L. Qi, R. Tang, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “A microfiber-based gold nanorod saturable absorber with evanescent field interaction for multi-soliton patterns in a fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 26, 065105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. J. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. X. Jia, Y. Feng, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Feng, L. Colleen, H. Jason, and N. Peter, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7, 729–732 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

P. S. Kumar, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars,” Nanotechnology 19, 015606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent development in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. D. Wang, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, M. Liu, Y. F. Zhu, J. P. Xue, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorber for Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 346, 21–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, B. Zhai, R. G. Lu, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization of the GNSs and GNS film. (a) TEM image of GNSs at scale of 100 nm; inset: photographs of GNS aqueous solution and the TEM image of GNSs at a scale of 20 nm. (b) SEM image of GNS film at scale of 500 nm; inset: the photograph of GNS film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of GNS solution (red line) and GNS film (black line).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Setup of measurement of saturable absorption by balanced twin detector measurement technology.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dependence of the transmittance of the GNS film on the incident pump peak power density.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of the experimental setup for the GNS based passively Q-switched EDFL. Laser diode (LD), wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), Er3+ doped fiber (EDF), isolator (ISO), output coupler (OC), optical spectrum analyser (OSA). Inset: TEM image of GNS.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Q-switched pulse output characterization in the EDF laser cavity with a GNS SA. (a) Optical spectra of CW laser and Q-switched pulsed laser. (b) Pulse train and (c) single pulse characteristics of Q-switched pulsed laser for a pump power of 120 mW. (d) Pulse repetition rate and pulse width versus pump power.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured emission spectra of the Q-switched laser based on the GNS SA.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Relationship between the average output powers and pump powers.