Abstract

A polarization-diversity loop with a silicon waveguide with a lateral p-i-n diode as a nonlinear medium is used to realize polarization insensitive four-wave mixing. Wavelength conversion of seven dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals at 16 GBd is demonstrated with an optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty below 0.7 dB. High-quality converted signals are generated thanks to the low polarization dependence (≤0.5 dB) and the high conversion efficiency (CE) achievable. The strong Kerr nonlinearity in silicon and the decrease of detrimental free-carrier absorption due to the reverse-biased p-i-n diode are key in ensuring high CE levels.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2017 (5)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

C. J. Krückel, V. Torres-Company, P. A. Andrekson, D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Continuous wave-pumped wavelength conversion in low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 875–878 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Marhic, P. A. Andrekson, P. Petropoulos, S. Radic, C. Peucheret, and M. Jazayerifar, “Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 50–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, J. Bruns, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Design rules for p-i-n diode carriers sweeping in nano-rib waveguides on SOI,” Opt. Express 19, 9915–9922 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 3582–3591 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, “Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947–949 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

J. Dailey, A. Agarwal, C. J. McKinstrie, and P. Toliver, “Optical filtering through frequency selective phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W4D.2.

Andrekson, P. A.

M. E. Marhic, P. A. Andrekson, P. Petropoulos, S. Radic, C. Peucheret, and M. Jazayerifar, “Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 50–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. J. Krückel, V. Torres-Company, P. A. Andrekson, D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Continuous wave-pumped wavelength conversion in low-loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40, 875–878 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

A. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brener, I.

Bruns, J.

Chen, H.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

Chou, M. H.

Chu, S.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Da Ros, F.

da Silva, E. P.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Da Ros, M. P. Yankov, E. P. da Silva, M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, H. Hu, E. Semenova, S. Forchhammer, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Characterization and optimization of a high-efficiency AlGaAs-on-Insulator-based wavelength converter for 64- and 256-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 3750–3757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dailey, J.

J. Dailey, A. Agarwal, C. J. McKinstrie, and P. Toliver, “Optical filtering through frequency selective phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W4D.2.

Dalgaard, K.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, L. B.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elschner, R.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ettabib, M. A.

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear silicon photonic signal processing devices for future optical networks,” Appl. Sci. 7, 103–120 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

Feng, X.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

Forchhammer, S.

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gajda, A.

Galili, M.

Gao, S.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guan, P.

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, “Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947–949 (1993).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Huang, L.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

Hvam, J. M.

Ikeuchi, T.

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Inoue, K.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, “Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947–949 (1993).
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Inoue, T.

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jamshidi, K.

Jazayerifar, M.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Kakande, J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
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Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, S.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Ikeuchi, “Efficient all-optical wavelength converter placement and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W2A52.

Kjøller, N. K.

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krückel, C. J.

Lacava, C.

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear silicon photonic signal processing devices for future optical networks,” Appl. Sci. 7, 103–120 (2017).
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Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

Liebig, E.

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
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Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
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Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, P. A. Andrekson, P. Petropoulos, S. Radic, C. Peucheret, and M. Jazayerifar, “Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 50–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mathlouthi, W.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Dailey, A. Agarwal, C. J. McKinstrie, and P. Toliver, “Optical filtering through frequency selective phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W4D.2.

Meuer, C.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mimura, Y.

S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

Molle, L.

Morandotti, R.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
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Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

Moss, D.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Namiki, S.

Nölle, M.

Nuccio, S. R.

A. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 320–332 (2011).
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O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oda, K.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, “Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947–949 (1993).
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Oikawa, Y.

Ota, K.

Ottaviano, L.

Ou, H.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oxenløwe, L. K.

F. Da Ros, E. P. da Silva, D. Zibar, S. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, M. Galili, D. Moss, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide,” APL Photon. 2, 046105 (2017).
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F. Da Ros, M. P. Yankov, E. P. da Silva, M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, H. Hu, E. Semenova, S. Forchhammer, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Characterization and optimization of a high-efficiency AlGaAs-on-Insulator-based wavelength converter for 64- and 256-QAM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 3750–3757 (2017).
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M. Pu, H. Hu, C. Peucheret, H. Ji, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, J. M. Hvam, and K. Yvind, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 16374–16380 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

Palacharla, P.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Ikeuchi, “Efficient all-optical wavelength converter placement and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W2A52.

Paniccia, M.

Parameswaran, K. R.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
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Peczek, A.

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
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Petermann, K.

I. Sackey, A. Gajda, A. Peczek, E. Liebig, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “1.024  Tb/s wavelength conversion in a silicon waveguide with reverse-biased p-i-n junction,” Opt. Express 25, 21229–21240 (2017).
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M. Jazayerifar, I. Sackey, R. Elschner, T. Richter, L. Molle, P. Wilke Berenguer, C. Schubert, K. Jamshidi, and K. Petermann, “Impact of Brillouin backscattering on signal distortions in single-fiber diversity loop based polarization-insensitive FOPAs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4137–4144 (2017).
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I. Sackey, F. Da Ros, M. Jazayerifar, T. Richter, C. Meuer, M. Nölle, L. Molle, C. Peucheret, K. Petermann, and C. Schubert, “Kerr nonlinearity mitigation in 5×28-GBd PDM 16-QAM signal transmission over a dispersion-uncompensated link with backward-pumped distributed Raman amplification,” Opt. Express 22, 27381–27391 (2014).
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F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, K. Dalgaard, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, M. Galili, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, “Phase regeneration of DPSK signals in a silicon waveguide with reverse-biased p-i-n junction,” Opt. Express 22, 5029–5036 (2014).
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A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, M. Jazayerifar, G. Winzer, H. Tian, R. Elschner, T. Richter, C. Schubert, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction,” Opt. Express 20, 13100–13107 (2012).
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A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, J. Bruns, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Design rules for p-i-n diode carriers sweeping in nano-rib waveguides on SOI,” Opt. Express 19, 9915–9922 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petit, S.

Petropoulos, P.

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear silicon photonic signal processing devices for future optical networks,” Appl. Sci. 7, 103–120 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. E. Marhic, P. A. Andrekson, P. Petropoulos, S. Radic, C. Peucheret, and M. Jazayerifar, “Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 50–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Phelan, R.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

Pu, M.

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

M. E. Marhic, P. A. Andrekson, P. Petropoulos, S. Radic, C. Peucheret, and M. Jazayerifar, “Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 50–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richter, T.

Røge, K. M.

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

Rong, H.

Sackey, I.

Salem, R.

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, J.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schubert, C.

Semenova, E.

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solis-Trapala, K.

Spencer, D. T.

Sugizaki, R.

S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tadakuma, M.

S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

Takahashi, M.

S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

Takara, H.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
[Crossref]

Takasaka, S.

H. N. Tan, T. Inoue, K. Solis-Trapala, S. Petit, Y. Oikawa, K. Ota, S. Takasaka, T. Yagi, M. Pelusi, and S. Namiki, “On the cascadability of all-optical wavelength converter for high-order QAM formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3194–3205 (2016).
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S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

Takenouchi, H.

Tan, H. N.

Tian, H.

Tillack, B.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toliver, P.

J. Dailey, A. Agarwal, C. J. McKinstrie, and P. Toliver, “Optical filtering through frequency selective phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W4D.2.

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Torres-Company, V.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Uchiyama, K.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Polarisation-independent 100  Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer using four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining fibre loop,” Electron. Lett. 30, 591–592 (1994).
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Umeki, T.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with siliconorganic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vukovic, D.

D. Vukovic, J. Schroeder, Y. Ding, M. D. Pelusi, L. B. Du, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Wavelength conversion of DP-QPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 411–414 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Da Ros, D. Vukovic, A. Gajda, K. Dalgaard, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, M. Galili, K. Petermann, and C. Peucheret, “Phase regeneration of DPSK signals in a silicon waveguide with reverse-biased p-i-n junction,” Opt. Express 22, 5029–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

A. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Ikeuchi, “Efficient all-optical wavelength converter placement and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W2A52.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

Weerasuriya, R.

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X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

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H. N. Tan, T. Inoue, K. Solis-Trapala, S. Petit, Y. Oikawa, K. Ota, S. Takasaka, T. Yagi, M. Pelusi, and S. Namiki, “On the cascadability of all-optical wavelength converter for high-order QAM formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3194–3205 (2016).
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Other (5)

S. Takasaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, and T. Yagi, “Polarization insensitive arbitrary wavelength conversion in entire C-band using a PM-HNLF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2010), paper Th.9.C.2.

X. Feng, Z. Wu, L. Huang, X. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Gao, “All-optical wavelength converter for Pol-MUX QPSK signals based on a single silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper JW2A.115.

P. Guan, F. Da Ros, N. K. Kjøller, H. Hu, K. M. Røge, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th4I.5.

J. Dailey, A. Agarwal, C. J. McKinstrie, and P. Toliver, “Optical filtering through frequency selective phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W4D.2.

X. Wang, I. Kim, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Ikeuchi, “Efficient all-optical wavelength converter placement and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper W2A52.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sketches of (a) the silicon waveguide structure (Hwg=220  nm, Wwg=500  nm, and swg=100  nm) including the p-i-n lateral diode (wi=1.2  μm) and metal contacts and (b) the polarization-diversity loop setup based on the silicon waveguide highlighting CW (red arrows) and CCW (dark yellow arrows) propagation for signal (solid) and idler (dashed).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup for conversion bandwidth measurements using the polarization-insensitive wavelength converter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Conversion bandwidth as a function of the signal wavelength at constant power per waveguide input (22 dBm at grating coupler) and (b) diode current as a function of the reverse bias applied to the diode for constant combined power at both grating couplers.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup for the system characterization of the wavelength converter.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) BER and received OSNR of channel 4 as a function of the signal power in input to the circulator and (b) input and output spectra for the WDM PDM wavelength conversion (resolution bandwidth of 0.1 nm).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) BER as a function of the received OSNR/channel for signal and idler channels and (b) required receiver OSNR/channel and OSNR penalty for a BER=3.8×103 (HD-FEC).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Polarization dependence shown as average effective SNR difference between x and y polarizations for the signal and idler channels.