Abstract

Strong nonlinearity of plasmonic metamaterials can be designed near their effective plasma frequency in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime. We explore the realization of an all-optical modulator based on the Au nonlinearity using an ENZ cavity formed by a few Au nanorods inside a Si photonic waveguide. The resulting modulator has robust performance with a modulation depth of about 30 dB/μm and loss less than 0.8 dB for switching energies below 600 fJ. The modulator provides a double advantage of high mode transmission and strong nonlinearity enhancement in the few-nanorod-based design.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2017 (3)

L. Nicholls, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. E. Nasir, R. M. Cordova-Castro, N. Olivier, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast synthesis and switching of light polarization in nonlinear anisotropic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 11, 628–633 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. McPolin, N. Olivier, J.-S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16237 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Peruch, A. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, B. Wells, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Geometry defines ultrafast hot carrier dynamics and Kerr nonlinearity in plasmonic metamaterial waveguides and cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700299 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Benchmarking system-level performance of passive and active plasmonic components: integrated circuits approach,” Proc. IEEE 104, 2338–2348 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. T. McPolin, J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, J. Justice, B. Corbett, and A. V. Zayats, “Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12409 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23, 2487–2511 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Active nanophotonic circuitry based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1662–1690 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Shcherbakov, P. P. Vabishchevich, A. S. Shorokhov, K. E. Chong, D.-Y. Choi, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, A. A. Fedyanin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with magnetic resonances in nonlinear dielectric nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 15, 6985–6990 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Neira, N. Olivier, M. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7757 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Dickson, S. Beckett, C. McClatchey, A. Murphy, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5974–5980 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Superluminal and stopped light due to mode coupling in confined hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17678 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Nasir, S. Peruch, N. Vasilantonakis, W. P. Wardley, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Tuning the effective plasma frequency of nanorod metamaterials from visible to telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121110 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, P. Ginzburg, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry,” Opt. Express 22, 10987–10994 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Progress in silicon platforms for integrated optics,” Nanophotonics 3, 205–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21, 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7, 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Experimental demonstration of surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in hypergratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3291 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. L. Cortes and Z. Jacob, “Photonic analog of a van Hove singularity in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 045407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Ren, B. Jia, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

L. Jiang and H.-L. Tsai, “Improved two-temperature model and its application in ultrashort laser heating of metal films,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 1167–1173 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science 310, 651–653 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Kodama, T. Yoshimatsu, and H. Ito, “500  Gbit/s optical gate monolithically integrating photodiode and electroabsorption modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40, 555–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Y. Bigot, J. Y. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Apostolopoulos, D.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashburn, P.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avramopoulos, H.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babicheva, V. E.

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Progress in silicon platforms for integrated optics,” Nanophotonics 3, 205–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baus, M.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beckett, S.

W. Dickson, S. Beckett, C. McClatchey, A. Murphy, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5974–5980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belov, P.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7, 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

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C. P. T. McPolin, J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, J. Justice, B. Corbett, and A. V. Zayats, “Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12409 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vyrsokinos, K.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. S.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science 310, 651–653 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wangberg, R.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wardley, W. P.

M. E. Nasir, S. Peruch, N. Vasilantonakis, W. P. Wardley, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Tuning the effective plasma frequency of nanorod metamaterials from visible to telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J.-C.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wells, B.

S. Peruch, A. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, B. Wells, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Geometry defines ultrafast hot carrier dynamics and Kerr nonlinearity in plasmonic metamaterial waveguides and cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700299 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wurtz, G. A.

S. Peruch, A. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, B. Wells, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Geometry defines ultrafast hot carrier dynamics and Kerr nonlinearity in plasmonic metamaterial waveguides and cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700299 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Nicholls, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. E. Nasir, R. M. Cordova-Castro, N. Olivier, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast synthesis and switching of light polarization in nonlinear anisotropic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 11, 628–633 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. McPolin, N. Olivier, J.-S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16237 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. P. T. McPolin, J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, J. Justice, B. Corbett, and A. V. Zayats, “Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12409 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Neira, N. Olivier, M. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7757 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Dickson, S. Beckett, C. McClatchey, A. Murphy, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5974–5980 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Superluminal and stopped light due to mode coupling in confined hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17678 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Nasir, S. Peruch, N. Vasilantonakis, W. P. Wardley, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Tuning the effective plasma frequency of nanorod metamaterials from visible to telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121110 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, P. Ginzburg, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry,” Opt. Express 22, 10987–10994 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Ye, C. R.

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshimatsu, T.

S. Kodama, T. Yoshimatsu, and H. Ito, “500  Gbit/s optical gate monolithically integrating photodiode and electroabsorption modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40, 555–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

L. Nicholls, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. E. Nasir, R. M. Cordova-Castro, N. Olivier, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast synthesis and switching of light polarization in nonlinear anisotropic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 11, 628–633 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. McPolin, N. Olivier, J.-S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16237 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Peruch, A. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, B. Wells, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Geometry defines ultrafast hot carrier dynamics and Kerr nonlinearity in plasmonic metamaterial waveguides and cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700299 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Benchmarking system-level performance of passive and active plasmonic components: integrated circuits approach,” Proc. IEEE 104, 2338–2348 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. T. McPolin, J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, J. Justice, B. Corbett, and A. V. Zayats, “Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12409 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Active nanophotonic circuitry based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1662–1690 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Dickson, S. Beckett, C. McClatchey, A. Murphy, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5974–5980 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Neira, N. Olivier, M. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7757 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Nasir, S. Peruch, N. Vasilantonakis, W. P. Wardley, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Tuning the effective plasma frequency of nanorod metamaterials from visible to telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121110 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Superluminal and stopped light due to mode coupling in confined hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17678 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, P. Ginzburg, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry,” Opt. Express 22, 10987–10994 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Ren, B. Jia, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Dickson, S. Beckett, C. McClatchey, A. Murphy, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Hyperbolic polaritonic crystals based on nanostructured nanorod metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 27, 5974–5980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

S. Peruch, A. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, B. Wells, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Geometry defines ultrafast hot carrier dynamics and Kerr nonlinearity in plasmonic metamaterial waveguides and cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700299 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Active nanophotonic circuitry based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1662–1690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. E. Nasir, S. Peruch, N. Vasilantonakis, W. P. Wardley, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Tuning the effective plasma frequency of nanorod metamaterials from visible to telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121110 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Kodama, T. Yoshimatsu, and H. Ito, “500  Gbit/s optical gate monolithically integrating photodiode and electroabsorption modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40, 555–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

L. Jiang and H.-L. Tsai, “Improved two-temperature model and its application in ultrashort laser heating of metal films,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 1167–1173 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C. McPolin, N. Olivier, J.-S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16237 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. R. Shcherbakov, P. P. Vabishchevich, A. S. Shorokhov, K. E. Chong, D.-Y. Choi, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, A. A. Fedyanin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with magnetic resonances in nonlinear dielectric nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 15, 6985–6990 (2015).
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Nanophotonics (1)

A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Progress in silicon platforms for integrated optics,” Nanophotonics 3, 205–214 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

C. P. T. McPolin, J.-S. Bouillard, S. Vilain, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, J. Justice, B. Corbett, and A. V. Zayats, “Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12409 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Neira, N. Olivier, M. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5, 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7, 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Nicholls, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. E. Nasir, R. M. Cordova-Castro, N. Olivier, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrafast synthesis and switching of light polarization in nonlinear anisotropic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 11, 628–633 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
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Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. L. Cortes and Z. Jacob, “Photonic analog of a van Hove singularity in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 045407 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

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[Crossref]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153902 (2010).
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Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Benchmarking system-level performance of passive and active plasmonic components: integrated circuits approach,” Proc. IEEE 104, 2338–2348 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

A. D. Neira, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Superluminal and stopped light due to mode coupling in confined hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17678 (2015).
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K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Experimental demonstration of surface and bulk plasmon polaritons in hypergratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3291 (2013).
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S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science 310, 651–653 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a, 2014, https://www.comsol.com/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the modulator composed of two layers of ENZ metamaterial integrated in a conventional Si waveguide and separated by a gap. (b) Design based on plasmonic nanorods. The frequency to achieve the ENZ condition can be tuned by varying the diameter of and separation between nanorods.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmission of the cavity for different nanorod diameters and gaps. (a) TMM calculations. In this geometry, schematically shown in Fig. 1(a), the nanorod metamaterial layers are replaced by homogenenized layers of thickness corresponding to one unit cell of the nanostructured metamaterial. (b) Dependence of the effective permittivity of the metamaterial layer on the nanorod diameter. (c) Full-vectorial 3D simulation of the transmission of the waveguide-integrated modulator for different nanorod diameters and gaps. (d) Intensity distribution of the guided mode for (left) low- and (right) high-transmission states occuring for the gaps of 100  nm and 180  nm, respectively. The nanorod diameter was set to 35 nm with the distance between nanorods being 90 nm; the waveguide cross-sectional dimension is 340  nm×300  nm. All simulations were performed at a wavelength of 1.55 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Transmission spectra of the modulator in ON and OFF states and the modulation depth obtained from full-vectorial simulations for the resonance conditions shown in Fig. 2(b): nanorods with 35 nm diameter, 90 nm period, and 180 nm gap. Insets show the guided mode intensity distributions along the waveguide modulator at different wavelengths (1.1, 1.3, and 1.55 μm) and transmission states for the mode propagating from the bottom to the top of the waveguide.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ=ϵ(ω,TL,Te)=ϵωp2(TL)ω[ω+iγintra(ω,TL,Te)],
E=(1/2)CeTe2VENZ,

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