Abstract

This paper reports the experimental realization of efficiently sorting vector beams by polarization topological charge (PTC). The PTC of a vector beam can be defined as the repetition number of polarization state change along the azimuthal axis, while its sign stands for the rotating direction of the polarization. Here, a couple of liquid crystal Pancharatnam–Berry optical elements (PBOEs) have been used to introduce conjugated spatial phase modulations for two orthogonal circular polarization states. Applying these PBOEs in a 4-f optical system, our experiments show the setup can work for PTC sorting with a separation efficiency of more than 58%. This work provides an effective way to decode information from different PTCs, which may be interesting in many fields, especially in optical communication.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

C. Li and S. Zhao, “Efficient separating orbital angular momentum mode with radial varying phase,” Photon. Res. 5, 267–270 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2579–2582 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. F. Walsh, “Pancharatnam-Berry optical element sorter of full angular momentum eigenstate,” Opt. Express 24, 6689–6704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

G. Milione, A. N. Thien, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Ndagano, R. Bruening, M. McLaren, M. Duparre, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Davis, N. Hashimoto, M. Kurihara, E. Hurtado, M. Pierce, M. M. Sanchez-Lopez, K. Badham, and I. Moreno, “Analysis of a segmented q-plate tunable retarder for the generation of first-order vector beams,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9583–9590 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, C. Gao, Y. Shi, K. Dai, L. Zhong, and S. Zhang, “Generating polarization vortices by using helical beams and a Twyman Green interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1775–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Stzul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, A. N. Thien, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Stzul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, S.

Badham, K.

Bao, C.

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Birnbaum, K.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Boyd, R. W.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

Bruening, R.

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Courtial, J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cui, G.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, K.

Davis, J. A.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Du, L.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duan, W.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

Duparre, M.

Erkmen, B.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Feng, S.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, C. Gao, Y. Shi, K. Dai, L. Zhong, and S. Zhang, “Generating polarization vortices by using helical beams and a Twyman Green interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1775–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuerhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, C. Gao, Y. Shi, K. Dai, L. Zhong, and S. Zhang, “Generating polarization vortices by using helical beams and a Twyman Green interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1775–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2579–2582 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ge, S.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, N.

Hu, W.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hurtado, E.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, P.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

Kristensen, P.

Kurihara, M.

Lavery, M.

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Leach, J.

G. Milione, A. N. Thien, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lei, T.

W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2579–2582 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, L.

Li, M.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2579–2582 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. N.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

Lu, Y.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malik, M.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

McLaren, M.

Milione, G.

G. Milione, A. N. Thien, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Stzul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Min, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ming, Y.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mirhosseini, M.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molisch, A. F.

Moreno, I.

Ndagano, B.

Niu, H.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nolan, D. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, A. N. Thien, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Stzul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pierce, M.

Qiao, W.

Ramachandran, S.

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fuerhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D.

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D. J.

Rodenburg, B.

M. Lavery, D. Robertson, M. Malik, B. Rodenburg, J. Courtial, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “The efficient sorting of light’s orbital angular momentum for optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 8542, 85421R (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Lopez, M. M.

Shamee, B.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Shi, Y.

Shi, Z.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stzul, H. I.

G. Milione, H. I. Stzul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thien, A. N.

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Walsh, G. F.

Wang, J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Wang, T.

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, W. Ji, B. Wei, W. Hu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 241102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weng, X.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, A. N. Thien, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20  Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Wu, Z.

Xie, G.

Xie, Z.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Yang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

Yao, A. M.

Yin, C.

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

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W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2579–2582 (2017).
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Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhai, Y.

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, L.

W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Y.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Zhao, Z.

Zhong, L.

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P. Chen, S. Ge, W. Duan, B. Wei, G. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Digitalized geometric phases for parallel optical spin and orbital angular momentum encoding,” ACS Photon. 4, 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (3)

Appl. Opt. (1)

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[Crossref]

S. Fu, Y. Zhai, T. Wang, C. Yin, and C. Gao, “Tailoring arbitrary hybrid Poincaré beams through a single hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 211101 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Xie, T. Lei, X. Weng, L. Du, S. Gao, Y. Yuan, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and X. Yuan, “A miniaturized polymer grating for topological order detection of cylindrical vector beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2799–2802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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W. Ji, C. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, A. N. Thien, D. A. Nolan, M. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, A. E. Willner, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, “25.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 16-QAM signals over pol-muxed multiple orbital-angular-momentum modes,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), Vol. 58, pp. 587–588.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) PTC sorting setup, (b) the angle function α1(x,y) of optical geometric transverter (OGT), and (c) α2(x,y) of optical phase corrector (OPC).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulation of the optical geometric transformation of vector beams with m=1. OGT is at z/f=1, the first lens is at z/f=0 and OPC is at z/f=1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Intensity profiles at a distance from the first lens to OPC: z=250, 750, 1000 mm. (a)–(c) are experimental records by CCD camera, while (d)–(f) are simulation results.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Intensity profile of incident vector beam with m=2, (b) the horizontal and (c) the vertical polarization components, and the intensity distributions at image plane for the incident beam with PTC values of (d) m=2, 1, 0, 1, and 2, and (e) m=0 and 2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) x–directional integral intensity distribution of the vector fields along the y direction with the PTC values of m=2, 1, 0, 1, and 2 at the image plane. (b) Experimental intensity distribution via different PTC values from 2 to 2 over whole detection regions.

Equations (6)

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Em=[cos(mφ+φ0)sin(mφ+φ0)]=12ei(mφ+φ0)[1i]+12ei(mφ+φ0)[1i]=12|m,L+12|m,R,
M(x,y)=[cos2α(x,y)sin2α(x,y)sin2α(x,y)cos2α(z,y)].
[ELER]=12[1i1i][ExEy]=C[ExEy].
CM(x,y)C1[ELER]=[0e2iα(x,y)e2iα(x,y)0][ELER].
α1(x,y)=πaλf[y·arctan(yx)x·ln(x2+y2b)+x]
α2(u,v)=πabλfexp(|u|a)cos(va)

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