Abstract

In silicon photonics, the carrier depletion scheme has been the most commonly used mechanism for demonstrating high-speed electro-optic modulation. However, in terms of phase modulation efficiency, carrier-accumulation-based devices potentially offer almost an order of magnitude improvement over those based on carrier depletion. Previously reported accumulation modulator designs only considered vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, which imposes serious restrictions on the design flexibility and integratability with other photonic components. In this work, for the first time to our knowledge, we report experimental demonstration of an all-silicon accumulation phase modulator based on a lateral MOS capacitor. Using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modulator with a 500-μm-long phase shifter, we demonstrate high-speed modulation up to 25  Gbit/s with a modulation efficiency (VπLπ) of 1.53  V·cm.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (4)

D. A. B. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 346–396 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2012 (2)

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20, 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abraham, A.

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

Adams, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Adibi, A.

Aihara, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Appel, C.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Arakawa, Y.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Batail, E.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Baudot, C.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blanc, R.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Boeuf, F.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Cassan, E.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Chen, D.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Chen, X.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chou, C.-Y.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crémer, S.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Dadap, J. I.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dama, B.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Debnath, K.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20, 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref]

Douix, M.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Dubray, O.

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

Eftekhar, A. A.

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Fujii, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujikata, J.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gondarenko, A.

Gothoskar, P.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grosse, P.

Han, J. H.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hasebe, K.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hiraki, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hosseinnia, A. H.

Hsieh, I.-W.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40  Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19, 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref]

Isautier, P.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kakitsuka, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Marrls-Morini, D.

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Menezo, S.

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

Metz, P.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 346–396 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moradinejad, H.

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, M.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

Olivier, S.

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

Osgood, R. M.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patel, V.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Perez-Galacho, D.

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Piede, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Poitras, C. B.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Preston, K.

Radic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ralph, S.

Reed, G. T.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20, 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40  Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19, 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rideau, D.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sekaric, L.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10  Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15, 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shastri, K.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Sodagar, M.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Souhaite, A.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Steffan, A. G.

Sunder, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Takagi, S.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, M.

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tummidi, R.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Vivien, L.

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Vlasov, Y. A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10  Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15, 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vulliet, N.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

Wang, L.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Webster, M.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

Xia, F.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Yu, S.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si MOS capacitor Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Perez-Galacho, A. Abraham, S. Olivier, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Silicon modulator based on interleaved capacitors in subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 989112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Silicon (1)

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon 2, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2014), pp. 1–2.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaite, R. Blanc, E. Batail, N. Vulliet, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “Design of integrated capacitive modulators for 56 Gbps operation,” in IEEE 13th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 5–7.

A. Abraham, O. Dubray, S. Olivier, D. Marrls-Morini, S. Menezo, and L. Vivien, “Low-voltage and low-loss silicon modulator based on carrier accumulation using a vertical slot waveguide,” in IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2016), pp. 118–119.

X. Xiao, M. Li, L. Wang, D. Chen, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “High speed silicon photonic modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (2017), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the Si/SiO2/Si MOS-capacitor phase shifter. The relative position of the phase shift in an MZI interferometer is highlighted in yellow. (b) Cross-sectional view of the MOS-capacitor structure used for designing the phase modulator. The width and height of the rib waveguide are 400 nm and 320 nm, respectively, and the slab height is 100 nm. The n-Si and p-Si regions have a doping concentration of 1×1018  cm3. The n++-Si and p++-Si regions have a doping concentration of 1×1020  cm3 and are positioned 900 nm away from the center of the waveguide. The oxide thickness tox is varied in the design to optimize device performance. (c) Excess carrier concentration distribution (in log scale) due to an applied bias of 4 V. (d) Normalized dominant electric field (|Ex|) profile (in dB) of the fundamental TE mode centered around the oxide slot region. (e) Simulated electric field (|Ex|) propagation from the rib waveguide region to the slot-waveguide region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Calculated change in device capacitance (in pF/mm) as a function of applied voltage. Since the modulator operates in accumulation regime, only positive bias is shown. The capacitance increases with reducing oxide thickness (tox). (b) Calculated phase shift (in rad/mm) as a function of applied voltage. The phase shift per unit length increases with reducing oxide thickness and applied voltage. (c) Calculated propagation loss (in dB/mm) as a function of applied voltage. The loss increases with reducing oxide thickness and applied voltage.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Cross-sectional SEM image of the fabricated modulator across the active region. (b) Magnified view of the MOS capacitor at the rib section, where the oxide layer is clearly visible. (c) Optical image of the fabricated MZI modulator with 500-μm-long phase shifter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured transmission spectra of the MZI modulator with 500-μm-long phase shifter as a function of applied voltage. The signal probe was connected to n-Si electrode while the ground probe was connected to the p-Si electrode. The output power of the modulator was normalized to a reference Si waveguide with same length. (b) Measured phase modulation (in radian) and extracted modulation efficiency VπLπ (in V·cm) as a function of applied voltage. (c) Measured eye diagrams at 20  Gbit/s and 25  Gbit/s. In all cases the driving voltage was 6 V with a DC bias of 3 V.

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