Abstract

In this paper, for the first time to our knowledge in the literature, we demonstrate photoluminescence from two-dimensional (2D) vanadium diselenide (VSe2) nanosheets (NSs). The preparation of these nanostructures is carried out with a combinational method based on nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (PLA) and chemical exfoliation. For this aim, VSe2 bulk is first ablated into nanoparticles (NPs) inside a water solution. Afterward, NPs are chemically exfoliated into NSs using lithium intercalation via ultrasonic treatment. Although VSe2 is a semimetal in its bulk form, its nanostructures show photo-responsive behavior, and it turns into a strongly luminescent material when it is separated into NSs. Based on the obtained results, the surface defects induced during the PLA process are the origin of this photoluminescence from NSs. Our findings illustrate that this new material can be a promising semiconductor for photovoltaic and light emitting diode applications.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2017 (19)

C. Luo, C. Wang, X. Wu, J. Zhang, and J. Chu, “In situ transmission electron microscopy characterization and manipulation of two-dimensional layered materials beyond graphene,” Small 13, 1604259 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, X. Zhuang, and X. Feng, “Recent advances in earth-abundant heterogeneous electrocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting,” Small Methods 1, 1700090 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Peng, Y. Li, F. Zhang, G. Zhang, and X. Fan, “Roles of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides as cocatalysts in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and environmental remediation,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56, 4611–4626 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, W. Zhao, J. Jiang, T. Zheng, Y. You, J. Lu, and Z. Ni, “Defect activated photoluminescence in WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 12294–12299 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Mukherjee, N. Kaushik, R. P. N. Tripathi, A. M. Joseph, P. K. Mohapatra, S. Dhar, B. P. Singh, G. V. P. Kumar, E. Simsek, and S. Lodha, “Exciton emission intensity modulation of monolayer MoS2 via Au plasmon coupling,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41175 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Susarla, A. Kutana, J. A. Hachtel, V. Kochat, A. Apte, R. Vajtai, J. C. Idrobo, B. I. Yakobson, C. S. Tiwary, and P. M. Ajayan, “Quaternary 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with tunable bandgap,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702457 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Palacios, S. Park, S. Butun, L. Lauhon, and K. Aydin, “Enhanced radiative emission from monolayer MoS2 films using a single plasmonic dimer nanoantenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 031101 (2017).
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J. Lee, J. Huang, B. G. Sumpter, and M. Yoon, “Strain-engineered optoelectronic properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterostructures,” 2D Mater. 4, 021016 (2017).

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M. Yan, X. Pan, P. Wang, F. Chen, L. He, G. Jiang, J. Wang, J. Z. Liu, X. Xu, X. Liao, J. Yang, and L. Mai, “Field-effect tuned adsorption dynamics of VSe2 nanosheets for enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction,” Nano Lett. 17, 4109–4115 (2017).
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2016 (21)

S. R. M. Santiago, T. N. Lin, C. T. Yuan, J. L. Shen, H. Y. Huang, and C. A. J. Lin, “Origin of tunable photoluminescence from graphene quantum dots synthesized via pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 22599–22605 (2016).
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T. G. Ulusoy Ghobadi, A. Ghobadi, T. Okyay, K. Topalli, and A. K. Okyay, “Controlling luminescent silicon nanoparticle emission produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation: role of interface defect states and crystallinity phase,” RSC Adv. 6, 112520 (2016).
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H. G. Baldoví, M. Latorre-Sánchez, I. Esteve-Adell, A. Khan, A. M. Asiri, S. A. Kosa, and H. Garcia, “Generation of MoS2 quantum dots by laser ablation of MoS2 particles in suspension and their photocatalytic activity for H2 generation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 18, 240 (2016).
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Z. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. Gu, Y. H. Chang, L. Zhang, L. J. Li, W. Zhao, G. Eda, W. Zhang, G. Grinblat, S. A. Maier, J. K. W. Yang, C. W. Qiu, and A. T. S. Wee, “Giant photoluminescence enhancement in tungsten-diselenide-gold plasmonic hybrid structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11283 (2016).
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Y. Wan, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Sheng, X. Wang, and L. Dai, “Large-scale synthesis and systematic photoluminescence properties of monolayer MoS2 on fused silica,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 18570–18576 (2016).
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N. Balis, E. Stratakis, and E. Kymakis, “Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets as charge transport layers for solution processed solar cells,” Mater. Today 19, 580–594 (2016).
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2015 (11)

D. M. Andoshe, J. M. Jeon, S. Y. Kim, and H. W. Jang, “Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for solar water splitting,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 11, 323–335 (2015).

D. Kang, M. Kim, J. Shim, J. Jeon, H. Park, W. Jung, H. Yu, C. Pang, S. Lee, and J. Park, “High-performance transition metal dichalcogenide photodetectors enhanced by self-assembled monolayer doping,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 4219–4227 (2015).
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F. Withers, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, A. Mishchenko, A. P. Rooney, A. Gholinia, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. J. Haigh, A. K. Geim, A. I. Tartakovskii, and K. S. Novoselov, “Light-emitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14, 301–306 (2015).
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P. K. Chow, R. B. Jacobs-Gedrim, J. Gao, T. Lu, B. Yu, and H. Terrones, “Defect-induced photoluminescence in monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 9, 1520–1527 (2015).
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X. Fan, P. Xu, D. Zhou, Y. Sun, Y. C. Li, M. A. T. Nguyen, M. Terrones, and T. E. Mallouk, “Fast and efficient preparation of exfoliated 2H MoS2 nanosheets by sonication-assisted lithium intercalation and infrared laser-induced 1T to 2H phase reversion,” Nano Lett. 15, 5956–5960 (2015).
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2014 (12)

T. G. Ulusoy, A. Ghobadi, and A. K. Okyay, “Surface engineered angstrom thick ZnO-sheathed TiO2 nanowires as photoanodes for performance enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 16867–16876 (2014).
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E. New, I. Hancox, L. A. Rochford, M. Walker, A. Dearden, C. F. Mcconville, and T. S. Jones, “Organic photovoltaic cells utilising ZnO electron extraction layers produced through thermal conversion of ZnSe,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 19201–19207 (2014).
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T. Oztas, H. S. Sen, E. Durgun, and B. Ortaç, “Synthesis of colloidal 2D/3D MoS2 nanostructures by pulsed laser ablation in an organic liquid environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 30120–30126 (2014).
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S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of two-dimensional excitonic light emission via photonic crystal,” 2D Mater. 1, 011001 (2014).

H. Nan, Z. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Liang, Y. Lu, Q. Chen, D. He, P. Tan, F. Miao, X. Wang, J. Wang, and Z. Ni, “Strong photoluminescence enhancement of MoS2 through defect engineering and oxygen bonding,” ACS Nano 8, 5738–5745 (2014).
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H. Li, X. Duan, X. Wu, X. Zhuang, H. Zhou, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, W. Hu, P. Ren, P. Guo, L. Ma, X. Fan, X. Wang, J. Xu, A. Pan, and X. Duan, “Growth of alloy MoS2xSe2(1-x)nanosheets with fully tunable chemical compositions and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3756–3759 (2014).
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N. Peimyoo, W. Yang, J. Shang, X. Shen, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Chemically driven tunable light emission of charged and neutral excitons in monolayer WS2,” ACS Nano 8, 11320–11329 (2014).
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D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8, 1102–1120 (2014).
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2013 (8)

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5, 263–275 (2013).
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O. Lopez-sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 497–501 (2013).
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S. Mouri, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Tunable photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 via chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 13, 5944–5948 (2013).
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2012 (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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2009 (1)

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2007 (1)

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2006 (1)

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O. Lopez-Sanchez, E. Alarcon Llado, V. Koman, A. Fontcuberta, I. Morral, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Light generation and harvesting in a van der Waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8, 3042–3048 (2014).
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M. M. Bernal, L. Álvarez, E. Giovanelli, A. Arnáiz, L. Ruiz-González, S. Casado, D. Granados, A. M. Pizarro, A. Castellanos-Gomez, and E. M. Pérez, “Luminescent transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets through one-step liquid phase exfoliation,” 2D Mater. 3, 035014 (2016).
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X. Chia, A. Ambrosi, P. Lazar, Z. Sofer, and M. Pumera, “Electrocatalysis of layered Group 5 metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2, M = V, Nb, and Ta; X = S, Se, and Te),” J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 14241–14253 (2016).
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M. Pumera, Z. Sofer, and A. Ambrosi, “Layered transition metal dichalcogenides for electrochemical energy generation and storage,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 8981–8987 (2014).
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D. M. Andoshe, J. M. Jeon, S. Y. Kim, and H. W. Jang, “Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for solar water splitting,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 11, 323–335 (2015).

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H. G. Baldoví, M. Latorre-Sánchez, I. Esteve-Adell, A. Khan, A. M. Asiri, S. A. Kosa, and H. Garcia, “Generation of MoS2 quantum dots by laser ablation of MoS2 particles in suspension and their photocatalytic activity for H2 generation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 18, 240 (2016).
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C. Ruppert, O. B. Aslan, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical properties and band gap of single- and few-layer MoTe2 crystals,” Nano Lett. 14, 6231–6236 (2014).
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N. Balis, E. Stratakis, and E. Kymakis, “Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets as charge transport layers for solution processed solar cells,” Mater. Today 19, 580–594 (2016).
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L. Zhou, H. Zhang, H. Bao, G. Liu, Y. Li, and W. Cai, “Onion-structured spherical MoS2 nanoparticles induced by laser ablation in water and liquid droplets’ radial solidification/oriented growth mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 23233–23239 (2017).
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I. G. Lezama, A. Arora, A. Ubaldini, C. Barreteau, E. Giannini, M. Potemski, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Indirect-to-direct band-gap crossover in few-layer MoTe2,” Nano Lett. 15, 2336–2342 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of VSe2 NP and NS formation using the PLA and ultra-sonication-assisted chemical exfoliation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. TEM images showing the successful formation of (a) laser-ablated NPs and (b) chemically exfoliated NSs. (c) HRTEM image showing the lattice spacing in the synthesized NSs. (d) SEM image of the drop-casted NS solution. (e) AFM measurement results showing the formation of single to a few layers of VSe2 and its thickness profile.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. XRD patterns of the VSe2 (a) rock, and produced (b) NP and (c) NS samples.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Absorption spectra of the synthesized colloidal NPs and NSs. The inset estimates the optical band gap of the samples. (b) The transition from 1T phase to 2H phase in IR radiated VSe2 samples.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Images of the NP and NS solutions before and after excitation with UV-incident light and (b) their PL spectra upon excitation with a 300 nm light. (c) The change of the emission spectra of the NS sample under different excitation wavelengths. (d) PL spectra change after irradiation with continuous light for 4 h. (e) The dependence of PL on the excitation light intensity at an excitation wavelength of 330 nm with different slit width values.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Raman spectra of the VSe2 rock and prepared NS samples.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. V 2p-O 1s and Se 3d spectra of the VSe2 (a),(d) rock, and the prepared (b),(e) NP and (c),(f) NS samples. All spectra have been deconvoluted to multiple peaks.

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