Abstract

We propose an efficient and robust method to generate tunable vector beams by employing a single phase-type spatial light modulator (SLM). With this method, a linearly polarized Gaussian beam can be converted into a vector beam with arbitrarily controllable polarization state, phase, and amplitude. The energy loss during the conversion is greatly reduced and depends mainly on the reflectivity of the SLM. We experimentally demonstrate that conversion efficiency of about 47% is achieved by using an SLM with reflectivity of 62%. Several typical vector beams, including cylindrical vector beams, vector beams on higher order Poincaré spheres, and arbitrary vector beams attached with phases and with tunable amplitude, are generated and verified experimentally. This method is also expected to create high-power vector beams and play important roles in optical fabrication and light trapping.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2017 (5)

S. Liu, L. Han, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “A method for simultaneously measuring polarization and phase of arbitrarily polarized beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 171112 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, P. Li, S. Liu, P. Chen, L. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Vortex-controlled morphology conversion of microstructures on silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, C. Ma, S. Liu, H. Cheng, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 56, 4956–4960 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Ling, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Measurements of Pancharatnam-Berry phase in mode transformations on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3447–3450 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

M. M. Sánchez-López, J. A. Davis, N. Hashimoto, I. Moreno, E. Hurtado, K. Badham, A. Tanabe, and S. W. Delaney, “Performance of a q-plate tunable retarder in reflection for the switchable generation of both first- and second-order vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 13–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, C. Ma, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2205–2208 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities,” Appl. Opt. 55, 9049–9053 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Manipulating spin-dependent splitting of vector abruptly autofocusing beam by encoding cosine-azimuthal variant phases,” Opt. Express 24, 28409–28418 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Gan, M. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20774 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cardano and L. Marrucci, “Spin-orbit photonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 776–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Li, S. Liu, G. Xie, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Modulation mechanism of multi-azimuthal masks on the redistributions of focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 23, 7131–7139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, and J. Zhao, “Unveiling the photonic spin Hall effect of freely propagating fan-shaped cylindrical vector vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4444–4447 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, and R. Donoso, “Encoding high-order cylindrically polarized light beams,” Appl. Opt. 53, 5493–5501 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, X. Ling, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5274–5276 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, Y. Chen, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Harnessing the point-spread function for high-resolution far-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. Sztul, D. Nolan, and R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Hao, B. F. Zhang, J. Xu, J. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of vector beam with space-variant distribution of both polarization and phase,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3179–3181 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Loussert and E. Brasselet, “Efficient scalar and vectorial singular beam shaping using homogeneous anisotropic media,” Opt. Lett. 35, 7–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Forces in optical tweezers with radially and azimuthally polarized trapping beams,” Opt. Lett. 33, 122–124 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Alexander, J.

M. Christian, J. Alexander, F. Severin, B. Stefan, and R.-M. Monika, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R.

G. Milione, H. Sztul, D. Nolan, and R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Badham, K.

Biener, G.

Biss, D. P.

Bomzon, Z.

Brasselet, E.

Brown, T. G.

Campos, J.

Cardano, F.

F. Cardano and L. Marrucci, “Spin-orbit photonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 776–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

H. Cheng, P. Li, S. Liu, P. Chen, L. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Vortex-controlled morphology conversion of microstructures on silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141901 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

X. Xie, Y. Chen, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Harnessing the point-spread function for high-resolution far-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Chigrinov, V.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Christian, M.

M. Christian, J. Alexander, F. Severin, B. Stefan, and R.-M. Monika, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

U. Ruiz, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient generation of vector beams through polarization holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 161104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cottrell, D. M.

Davis, J. A.

Delaney, S. W.

Ding, J.

Donoso, R.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

Ge, S.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gerardot, B. D.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Glöckl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, C. S.

Han, L.

Hao, J.

Hashimoto, N.

Hasman, E.

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

H. Cheng, P. Li, S. Liu, P. Chen, L. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Vortex-controlled morphology conversion of microstructures on silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141901 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurtado, E.

Jackel, S.

Ji, W.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiao, X.

Jones, P. H.

Ke, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, V.

Kong, L.

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kozawa, Y.

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Li, C. Ma, S. Liu, H. Cheng, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 56, 4956–4960 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, L. Han, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “A method for simultaneously measuring polarization and phase of arbitrarily polarized beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 171112 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, P. Li, S. Liu, P. Chen, L. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Vortex-controlled morphology conversion of microstructures on silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141901 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities,” Appl. Opt. 55, 9049–9053 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, C. Ma, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2205–2208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Manipulating spin-dependent splitting of vector abruptly autofocusing beam by encoding cosine-azimuthal variant phases,” Opt. Express 24, 28409–28418 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Gan, M. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20774 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, and J. Zhao, “Unveiling the photonic spin Hall effect of freely propagating fan-shaped cylindrical vector vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4444–4447 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Li, S. Liu, G. Xie, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Modulation mechanism of multi-azimuthal masks on the redistributions of focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 23, 7131–7139 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, S. Liu, P. Li, X. Jiao, and J. Zhao, “Controlling the polarization singularities of the focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 21, 974–983 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2416–2418 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Jiao, S. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Gan, P. Li, and J. Zhao, “Redistributing energy flow and polarization of a focused azimuthally polarized beam with rotationally symmetric sector-shaped obstacles,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1041–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of arbitrary spatially variant polarization beams with a trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 20, 21715–21721 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-P.

Ling, X.

Y. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Ling, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Measurements of Pancharatnam-Berry phase in mode transformations on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3447–3450 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, X. Ling, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5274–5276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Litvin, I.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Cheng, P. Li, S. Liu, P. Chen, L. Han, Y. Zhang, W. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Vortex-controlled morphology conversion of microstructures on silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, C. Ma, S. Liu, H. Cheng, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 56, 4956–4960 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, L. Han, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “A method for simultaneously measuring polarization and phase of arbitrarily polarized beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 171112 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Han, S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Cheng, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities,” Appl. Opt. 55, 9049–9053 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, C. Ma, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2205–2208 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Gan, M. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20774 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Manipulating spin-dependent splitting of vector abruptly autofocusing beam by encoding cosine-azimuthal variant phases,” Opt. Express 24, 28409–28418 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, S. Liu, G. Xie, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Modulation mechanism of multi-azimuthal masks on the redistributions of focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 23, 7131–7139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, and J. Zhao, “Unveiling the photonic spin Hall effect of freely propagating fan-shaped cylindrical vector vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40, 4444–4447 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2416–2418 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, S. Liu, P. Li, X. Jiao, and J. Zhao, “Controlling the polarization singularities of the focused azimuthally polarized beams,” Opt. Express 21, 974–983 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Jiao, S. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Gan, P. Li, and J. Zhao, “Redistributing energy flow and polarization of a focused azimuthally polarized beam with rotationally symmetric sector-shaped obstacles,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1041–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of arbitrary spatially variant polarization beams with a trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 20, 21715–21721 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Ling, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Measurements of Pancharatnam-Berry phase in mode transformations on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3447–3450 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, X. Ling, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5274–5276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Loussert, C.

Lu, Y.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Luo, H.

Y. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Ling, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Measurements of Pancharatnam-Berry phase in mode transformations on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3447–3450 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, X. Ling, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5274–5276 (2014).
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Ma, C.

Machavariani, G.

Makita, M.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Maragò, O. M.

Marrucci, L.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
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F. Cardano and L. Marrucci, “Spin-orbit photonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 776–778 (2015).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
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G. Milione, H. Sztul, D. Nolan, and R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
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Ming, Y.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
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M. Christian, J. Alexander, F. Severin, B. Stefan, and R.-M. Monika, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
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Moshe, I.

Naidoo, D.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
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Nieminen, T. A.

Nolan, D.

G. Milione, H. Sztul, D. Nolan, and R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
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U. Ruiz, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient generation of vector beams through polarization holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 161104 (2013).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peng, T.

Piccirillo, B.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
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S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
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R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
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Ren, Z.

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

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C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
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Ruiz, U.

U. Ruiz, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient generation of vector beams through polarization holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 161104 (2013).
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Sato, S.

Severin, F.

M. Christian, J. Alexander, F. Severin, B. Stefan, and R.-M. Monika, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

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H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

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H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shu, W.

Shvedov, V.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Christian, J. Alexander, F. Severin, B. Stefan, and R.-M. Monika, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

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G. Milione, H. Sztul, D. Nolan, and R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Tu, C.

S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Li, S. Qian, L. Kong, Z. Ren, Y. Li, C. Tu, and H. Wang, “An efficient and robust scheme for controlling the states of polarization in a Sagnac interferometric configuration,” Europhys. Lett. 105, 64006 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, M.

S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Gan, M. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20774 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Abrupt polarization transition of vector autofocusing Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2416–2418 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Li, J. Ding, C. Guo, and H. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. L.

Wei, B.

B. Wei, P. Chen, W. Hu, W. Ji, L. Zheng, S. Ge, Y. Ming, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, D.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary vector vortex beams on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Photon. Res. 5, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Ling, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Measurements of Pancharatnam-Berry phase in mode transformations on hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3447–3450 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Spin-dependent manipulating of vector beams by tailoring polarization,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34276 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, X. Ling, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5274–5276 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Xie, X.

X. Xie, Y. Chen, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Harnessing the point-spread function for high-resolution far-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263901 (2014).
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Xin, J.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yang, K.

X. Xie, Y. Chen, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Harnessing the point-spread function for high-resolution far-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263901 (2014).
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X. Yi, Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Zhou, Y. Ke, H. Luo, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Hybrid-order Poincaré sphere,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023801 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, Y. Liu, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Youngworth, K. S.

Yue, F.

F. Yue, D. Wen, J. Xin, B. D. Gerardot, J. Li, and X. Chen, “Vector vortex beam generation with a single plasmonic metasurface,” ACS Photon. 3, 1558–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yzuel, M. J.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, B. F.

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Y. Zhang, P. Li, C. Ma, S. Liu, H. Cheng, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 56, 4956–4960 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, C. Ma, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2205–2208 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, P. Li, S. Liu, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Manipulating spin-dependent splitting of vector abruptly autofocusing beam by encoding cosine-azimuthal variant phases,” Opt. Express 24, 28409–28418 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, P. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Gan, M. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20774 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       flower-shaped vector beam with double singularities

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup for generating arbitrary vector beams. λ/2, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M, mirror; RAPM, right-angle prism mirror; SLM, phase-type spatial light modulator; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; L, lens. The elements enclosed in the dashed boxes compose triangular common-path interferometers.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Intensity and polarization distributions of the radially (1) and azimuthally (2) polarized beams. (a) Light intensity distributions captured by CCD, (b)–(d) measurement results of normalized Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3), and (e) polarization ellipse distributions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Generated vector beams on a higher order Poincaré sphere. (a) Schematic of polarizations on a higher order Poincaré sphere for l=1; (b), (c) experimental results of the generated vector beams for θ=0.08π, φ0=0 and θ=0.2π, φ0=π/6, respectively; (d), (e) vector beams for l=2 and 1/2, respectively, while θ=0, φ0=0.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental results of the generated arbitrary vector beams. (a), (b) Vector beams with double singularities, (c) vector beam with radially and azimuthally varied polarization, and (d) vector beam with taiji-shaped polarization distribution. Top: measured polarization distributions. Bottom: corresponding orientation distributions of polarizations.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Generated vector beams (top) and their phase distributions (bottom). (a) Θ=φ, Ψ=φ; (b) Θ=3φ, Ψ=2φ; (c) Θ=φ+π/6, Ψ=2πr/260  μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Amplitude modulation of vector beams. (a), (b) Vector beams of Laguerre–Gaussian modes, (c) radially polarized S-shaped beam, and (d) flower-shaped vector beam with double singularities.

Equations (9)

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|E=cos2θei(ϕ1+δϕ)eR+sin2θeiϕ2eL,
|E=eiΨT(Θ)[cos(2θπ4)isin(2θπ4)],
Ψ=(ϕ1+ϕ2)/2,
Θ=(ϕ1ϕ2)/2,
T(Θ)=[cosΘsinΘsinΘcosΘ].
|E=eiΨ[cosΘsinΘ].
|E=cos2θeiφ0|Rl+sin2θeiφ0|Ll,
ϕ1=ϕ2=n=1Nmnφn+φ0,
ϕ1,2=(1sinc1E0)mod(Ψ±Θ+φg,2π),

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