Abstract

In past years, rare-earth-doped fluoride fiber lasers (FFLs) have developed rapidly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) region. However, due to the lack of fiber optic devices and challenge of fluoride fiber splicing, most mid-IR FFLs have been demonstrated with free-space optic elements, limiting the advantages of all-fiber lasers for flexible delivery, stability, and compactness. Here, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first pulsed all-fiber FFL in the mid-IR region. By taking advantage of the integration of black phosphorus flake, stable Q-switched and mode-locked pulses were obtained at 2.8 μm wavelength. We believe that this all-fiber design will promote the application of pulsed FFL in the mid-IR region.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2018 (4)

2017 (5)

Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, F. Maes, F. Jobin, S. D. Jackson, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, “Diode-pumped mid-infrared fiber laser with 50% slope efficiency,” Optica 4, 235–238 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “5.6  W monolithic fiber laser at 3.55  μm,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2054–2057 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, J. Ma, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser reaching 3.68  μm wavelength,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15, 111402 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Quenching of 3.4  μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1600208 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1  μm to 2.7  μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “New energy-transfer upconversion process in Er3+:ZBLAN mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 6869–6883 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, D. Ouyang, J. Zhao, M. Liu, S. Ruan, P. Yan, and J. Wang, “Scaling all-fiber mid-infrared supercontinuum up to 10  W-level based on thermal-spliced silica fiber and ZBLAN fiber,” Photon. Res. 4, 135–139 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933–25942 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Antipov, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power mid-infrared femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window,” Optica 3, 1373–1376 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Kong, G. Q. Xie, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2  μm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photon. Res. 3, A47–A50 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multilayer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Fortin, M. Bernier, S. T. Bah, and R. Vallée, “30  W fluoride glass all-fiber laser at 2.94  μm,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2882–2885 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Mid-infrared fiber lasers at and beyond 3.5  μm using dual-wavelength pumping,” Opt. Lett. 39, 493–496 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aydin, Y. O.

Bah, S. T.

Balakrishnan, K.

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bekman, H. H. P. T.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernier, M.

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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Chu, J.-H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
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M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
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Faist, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
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Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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Farries, M.

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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Fuerbach, A.

Fuhrer, M. S.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
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Gao, W. L.

Guo, X.

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
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Guo, Z. N.

Hai, T.

Halmer, D.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437–443 (2006).
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He, L.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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Henderson-Sapir, O.

Hering, P.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437–443 (2006).
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Höfler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
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Jackson, S. D.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X. F.

Jobin, F.

Jussila, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S. P.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
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L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1  μm to 2.7  μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
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Konishi, D.

Lau, S. P.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, P.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Liu, Y.

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, G. R.

Loh, K. P.

Lu, D. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, H.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. C.

Lv, P.

Lv, X.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maes, F.

Matsukuma, H.

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miao, L. L.

Mo, S.-K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mu, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

Murakami, M.

Mürtz, M.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nallala, J.

Napier, B.

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neto, A. H.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

Norwood, R. A.

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Donnell, K. M.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ottaway, D. J.

Ouyang, D.

Özyilmaz, B.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petersen, C. R.

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pflügl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prtljaga, N.

Qi, X.

Qi, X. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

Qian, L. J.

Qin, Z.

Ruan, S.

Schafer, C. A.

Schleijpen, H. M. A.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

Shen, D. Y.

Shen, Z.-X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, S.

Sobon, G.

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Song, Y. F.

Stone, N.

Sun, Z.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tadich, A.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Thelen, S.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tokita, S.

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Uehara, H.

Vallée, R.

van den Heuvel, J. C.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Putten, F. J. M.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, F. Wang, S. Xu, Y. Li, X. Guo, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene mode-locked fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 7–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. X.

Wang, Y.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus-polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

Wei, C.

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Xiao, S.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of the pulsed all-fiber Er:ZBLAN laser (upper) and inner image of the fiber connectors (lower). BP, black phosphorus; CMS, clad-mode stripper; PDMFF, power-delivering multimode fluoride fiber. The inset shows a photograph of the pulsed all-fiber Er:ZBLAN laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Typical Q-switched pulse train in 1 ms time scale. (b) RF spectrum with an SNR of 30 dB measured by a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 0.1 kHz. (c) Q-switched pulse profile with a pulse duration of 3.42 μs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Average power and pulse energy versus the launched pump power. (b) Repetition rate and pulse duration versus the launched pump power.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. BP Q-switched spectrum of all-fiber Er:ZBLAN laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Q-switched mode-locked pulse train at 796 mW of launched pump power in the 200 μs time scale, (b) Q-switched mode-locked pulse train at 900 mW of launched pump power in the 400 μs time scale, and (c) Q-switched mode-locked pulse train at 796 mW of launched pump power in the 1 μs time scale.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) CW mode-locked pulse train in the millisecond time scale and (b) CW mode-locked pulse train in the nanosecond time scale. (c) Fundamental RF spectrum with an SNR of 66 dB measured by an RBW of 1 kHz. The inset is a broader RF spectrum measured by an RBW of 0.3 MHz.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. CW mode-locked pulse spectrum.