Abstract

Optical coupling behavior and associated effects in two-dimensional implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays are studied via both experiments and theoretical calculations. Experiments show that optical coupling between array elements can enhance the array’s output power. Additionally, optical coupling via leaky optical fields can provide extra optical gain for the array elements, which can then reduce the thresholds of these elements. Elements can even be pumped without current injection to emit light by receiving a strong leaky optical field from other array elements. Optical coupling can also cause unusual phenomena: the central elements in large-area coherently coupled VCSEL arrays that lase prior to the outer elements when the arrays are biased, or the average injection current required for each element to lase, which is much lower than the threshold for a single VCSEL. Theoretical calculations are performed to explain the experimental results.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 167–169 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.
  4. M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421–1423 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Implant defined anti-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 160–164 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46, 712–714 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Implant defined anti-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46, 712–714 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, L.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brennan, T. M.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cemlyn, B. R.

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Chen, H. D.

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-D.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Implant defined anti-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46, 712–714 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dave, H.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Decker, P. J.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Elkin, N. N.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Florez, L. T.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fryslie, S. T. M.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gourley, P. L.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hadley, G. R.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hammons, B. E.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Harbison, J. P.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. R.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Henning, I. D.

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Johnson, M. T.

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kan, Q.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kim, N.-H.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lakomy, K.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lear, K. L.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lehman, A. C.

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-C.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mao, M.-M.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mawst, L. J.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

McElfresh, D. K.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Napartovich, A. P.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Orenstein, M.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Paek, E. G.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pan, G.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Ren, H.-Q.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schutt-Aine, J. E.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Siriani, D. F.

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Implant defined anti-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46, 712–714 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, N. G.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sulkin, J. D.

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Susanto, H.

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, M. P.

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thompson, B. J.

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Troshchieva, V. N.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van der Gaag, B. P.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vawter, G. A.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Von Lehmen, A.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vysotsky, D. V.

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Warren, M. E.

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wullert, J.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Xie, Y. Y.

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.-Y.

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Xu, K.

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xun, M.

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, J. Deng, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, J. Wang, K. Xu, and H. Chen, “Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2349–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two‐dimensional phased array of vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. E. Warren, P. L. Gourley, G. R. Hadley, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, B. E. Hammons, and K. L. Lear, “On-axis far-field emission from two-dimensional phase-locked vertical cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with an integrated phase-corrector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1484–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Near-diffraction-limited coherent emission from large aperture antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 320–322 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, J. D. Sulkin, and K. D. Choquette, “Phase and coherence extraction from a phased vertical cavity laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46, 712–714 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, and J. Sun, “Large-scale proton-implant-defined VCSEL arrays with narrow beamwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39, 390–393 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Implant defined anti-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 160–164 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 2600106 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Pan, Y. Xie, C. Xu, M. Xun, Y. Dong, J. Deng, H. Chen, and J. Sun, “Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry in in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 2400306 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. Bao, N.-H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, “Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of large aperture two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 968–981 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. T. Johnson, D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, and K. D. Choquette, “High-speed beam steering with phased vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701006 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. M. Fryslie, Z. Gao, H. Dave, B. J. Thompson, K. Lakomy, S. Lin, P. J. Decker, D. K. McElfresh, J. E. Schutt-Aine, and K. D. Choquette, “Modulation of coherently coupled phased photonic crystal vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700409 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-M. Mao, C. Xu, Q. Kan, Y.-Y. Xie, M. Xun, K. Xu, J.-C. Liu, H.-Q. Ren, and H.-D. Chen, “High beam quality of in-phase coherent coupling 2-D VCSEL arrays based on proton-implantation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 395–397 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. J. Adams, N. Li, B. R. Cemlyn, H. Susanto, and I. D. Henning, “Effects of detuning, gain-guiding, and index antiguiding on the dynamics of two laterally coupled semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 053869 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Xie, G. Jiang, G. Pan, Y. Dong, and H. Chen, “Beam steering in highly coherent implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” in CLEO (2016), San Jose, California, USA, June5–10, 2016.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Structural diagram of three-element addressable array. The inset shows the top view of a fabricated three-element addressable array. (b) Cross-sectional sketch of a 16-element VCSEL array. The inset shows the top view of a fabricated 16-element array. (c) Cross-sectional sketch of a 61-element VCSEL array. The inset shows the top view of a fabricated 61-element array.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Output power and voltage characteristics for injection currents supplied to the left element only, the top element only, and the right element only. The array elements are defined as the left element, the top element, and the right element, as shown in the inset.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Near-field profiles of each element of the three-element array measured below and above the threshold.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic of experimental setup and positions used for measurement of the optical distribution, the near-field profiles, the far-field patterns, and the spectra to be measured.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Top: optical field distributions in the active region of the array when measured for various Itop values while Ileft and Iright were fixed at 3.8 mA and 0 mA, respectively. Bottom: spectra and far-field patterns measured under various bias conditions.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Calculated index profiles through the left and top array elements (across the AA direction shown in the inset) under various bias conditions.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output power of the array versus injection current Iright when Ileft and Itop were fixed at 3.8 mA and 3.2 mA, respectively. The insets show the near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) profiles that were measured at different currents for the right element.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Top: measured near-fields of implant-defined 16-element in-phase coupled VCSEL arrays under various bias currents below threshold. Middle: measured near-fields of these arrays under various bias currents above threshold. Bottom: corresponding far-fields of these arrays measured at various currents above threshold. (b) PI curve of 16-element VCSEL array under continuous wave conditions. (c) Spectra of the array measured under different current conditions.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Measured PI characteristics of a 61-element in-phase coupled VCSEL array. The insets shown on the right are the near-fields, far-fields, and spectra that were measured at different currents.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Measured PI characteristics of a 61-element out-of-phase coupled VCSEL array. The insets shown on the right are the near-fields, far-fields, and spectra that were measured at different currents.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Calculated current density (unit: A·m2) distribution of 61-element VCSEL array with metal grids.

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