Abstract

Low-dimensional nanomaterials, owing to their unique and versatile properties, are very attractive for enormous electronic and optoelectronic applications. PbS quantum dots (QDs), characterized by a large Bohr radius and size-tunable bandgap, are especially interesting for photonic applications in the near-infrared region. Here, oleic acid capped colloidal PbS QDs as a saturable absorber are investigated for ultrashort-pulse generation. The PbS QDs exhibit outstanding nonlinear saturable absorption properties at 1550 nm: a modulation depth up to 44.5% and a thermal damage threshold larger than 30  mJ/cm2. By incorporating PbS QDs into a fiber laser, a transform-limited soliton pulse as short as 559 fs with a bandwidth of 4.78 nm is realized at 1563 nm. Numerous applications may benefit from the nonlinear saturable absorption properties of PbS QDs, such as near-infrared pulsed lasers and modulators.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  42. X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. L. Yun, “Generation of vector dissipative and conventional solitons in large normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 25, 18751–18759 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  45. L. Yun, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for dual-wavelength polarization-locked vector soliton generation,” Opt. Express 25, 32380–32385 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (6)

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Generation of vector dissipative and conventional solitons in large normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 25, 18751–18759 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for dual-wavelength polarization-locked vector soliton generation,” Opt. Express 25, 32380–32385 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. L. Gui, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asunskis, D. J.

D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
[Crossref]

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

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[Crossref]

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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mcdonald, S. A.

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miao, L. L.

Milne, W.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moreels, I.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mu, H.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Na, H. B.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
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Onushchenko, A. A.

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, J.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pötting, S.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
[Crossref]

Savitski, V. G.

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scholes, G. D.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

She, X.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Y.

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheng, X.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smeets, D.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. F.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. P.

X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tong, G.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tong, L. M.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. Q.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

White, I.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. X.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. Q.

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Xu, X.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
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Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
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Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
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D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
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J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
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Zhang, X.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
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Zhang, Z. X.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
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Zhao, C.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
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D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
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Zhao, L. M.

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D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
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Zheng, J. L.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
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Zhu, D. T.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
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C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
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Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
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Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
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ACS Photon. (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (3)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) TEM image and (b) corresponding size distribution histogram of PbS QDs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Linear absorption spectrum of the PbS QDs and (b) nonlinear transmission curve of the PbS QD-based SA.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. PbS QD mode-locked laser setup. Inset: digital photograph of the PbS QD mode locker fabricated on the fiber connector end.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mode-locked pulse characteristics. (a) Spectrum, (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) pulse train, and (d) radio frequency spectrum.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Average output power versus pump power in mode-locking states and (b) corresponding spectra at different pump powers.

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