Abstract

We fabricate titanium disulfide (TiS2) using a liquid exfoliation method and subsequently a TiS2-based device by optically depositing the TiS2 material onto the microfiber. This device exhibits a strong nonlinear saturable absorption property with an optical modulation depth of 8.3% at 1560 nm. With the implementation of this all-fiber TiS2-based saturable absorber, we demonstrate that both mode-locking and Q-switching operation can be obtained in a turn-key all-fiber erbium-doped laser cavity. Our findings constitute the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of a TiS2-based saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation and highlight the great potential of such devices in two-dimensional nanomaterials-related photonics.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. I. Dzhibladze, Z. G. Esiashvili, E. S. Teplitskii, S. K. Isaev, and V. R. Sagaradze, “Mode locking in a fiber laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 245–247 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Skaltsas, S. Pispas, and N. Tagmatarchis, “Photoinduced charge-transfer interactions on a graphene/block copolymer electrostatically bound to tetracationic porphyrin in aqueous media,” Chem. Eur. J. 19, 9286–9290 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Liao, K. Fan, R. Xu, H. Zhang, C. Lu, Y. Cui, and J. Zhang, “Laser-annealing-made amplified spontaneous emission of ‘giant’ CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals transferred from bulk-like shell to quantum-confined core,” Photon. Res. 3, 200–205 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Dolui and S. Sanvito, “Dimensionality-driven phonon softening and incipient charge density wave instability in TiS2,” Europhys. Lett. 115, 47001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Lin, Y. Chui, Y. Li, and S. P. Lau, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of black phosphorus and its applications,” FlatChem 2, 15–37 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. Sandoval, S. Jiménez, X. K. Chen, and J. C. Irwin, “Raman spectra of Agx TiS2, and lattice dynamics of TiS2,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 14347–14353 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Scharli and F. Lévy, “Interlayer acoustic phonons in the layered compound TiS2,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 4317–4319 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Wang, L. Zhan, J. Wu, Z. Zou, L. Zhang, K. Qian, L. He, and X. Fang, “Self-starting ultrafast fiber lasers mode-locked with alcohol,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3699–3702 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Source of spectral and temporal instability in soliton fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1515–1517 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. G. Ge, J. Liu, S. Z. Jiang, Y. Y. Xu, and B. Y. Man, “Compact Q-switched 2 μm Tm:GdVO4 laser with MoS2 absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, 256–259 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, Y. Chui, Y. Li, and S. P. Lau, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of black phosphorus and its applications,” FlatChem 2, 15–37 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Dolui and S. Sanvito, “Dimensionality-driven phonon softening and incipient charge density wave instability in TiS2,” Europhys. Lett. 115, 47001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

Z. Wang, L. Zhan, J. Wu, Z. Zou, L. Zhang, K. Qian, L. He, and X. Fang, “Self-starting ultrafast fiber lasers mode-locked with alcohol,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3699–3702 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Ge, J. Liu, S. Z. Jiang, Y. Y. Xu, and B. Y. Man, “Compact Q-switched 2 μm Tm:GdVO4 laser with MoS2 absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, 256–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Liao, K. Fan, R. Xu, H. Zhang, C. Lu, Y. Cui, and J. Zhang, “Laser-annealing-made amplified spontaneous emission of ‘giant’ CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals transferred from bulk-like shell to quantum-confined core,” Photon. Res. 3, 200–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Skaltsas, S. Pispas, and N. Tagmatarchis, “Photoinduced charge-transfer interactions on a graphene/block copolymer electrostatically bound to tetracationic porphyrin in aqueous media,” Chem. Eur. J. 19, 9286–9290 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2008 (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Source of spectral and temporal instability in soliton fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1515–1517 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sandoval, S. Jiménez, X. K. Chen, and J. C. Irwin, “Raman spectra of Agx TiS2, and lattice dynamics of TiS2,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 14347–14353 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. Scharli and F. Lévy, “Interlayer acoustic phonons in the layered compound TiS2,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 4317–4319 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. I. Dzhibladze, Z. G. Esiashvili, E. S. Teplitskii, S. K. Isaev, and V. R. Sagaradze, “Mode locking in a fiber laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 245–247 (1983).
[Crossref]

Albrow-Owen, T.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barawi, M.

M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z. P.

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Che, K. J.

Chen, J.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. K.

Sandoval, S. Jiménez, X. K. Chen, and J. C. Irwin, “Raman spectra of Agx TiS2, and lattice dynamics of TiS2,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 14347–14353 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chui, Y.

S. Lin, Y. Chui, Y. Li, and S. P. Lau, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of black phosphorus and its applications,” FlatChem 2, 15–37 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cuevas, F.

M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Dolui, K.

K. Dolui and S. Sanvito, “Dimensionality-driven phonon softening and incipient charge density wave instability in TiS2,” Europhys. Lett. 115, 47001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dzhibladze, M. I.

M. I. Dzhibladze, Z. G. Esiashvili, E. S. Teplitskii, S. K. Isaev, and V. R. Sagaradze, “Mode locking in a fiber laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 245–247 (1983).
[Crossref]

Esiashvili, Z. G.

M. I. Dzhibladze, Z. G. Esiashvili, E. S. Teplitskii, S. K. Isaev, and V. R. Sagaradze, “Mode locking in a fiber laser,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 245–247 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

Fang, X.

Ferrari, A. C.

Ferrer, I.

M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Flores, E.

M. Barawi, E. Flores, M. Ponthieu, J. Ramón Ares, F. Cuevas, F. Leardini, I. Ferrer, and C. Sanchez, “Hydrogen storage by titanium based sulfides: nanoribbons (TiS3) and nanoplates (TiS2),” J. Electr. Eng. 3, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ge, P. G.

Ge, Y.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, L.

Howe, R. C. T.

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Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. I.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, J. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-B.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-C.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiang, N.

Xie, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.-H.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

Xu, S.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. Y.

Yang, Z.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.-F.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Z.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhai, B.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, H.

Y. Xu, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Ge, Z. Guo, Z. Zeng, Q.-H. Xu, H. Zhang, X.-F. Yu, and D. Fan, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus nanosheets and their applications in ultrafast photonics,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 3007–3013 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Liao, K. Fan, R. Xu, H. Zhang, C. Lu, Y. Cui, and J. Zhang, “Laser-annealing-made amplified spontaneous emission of ‘giant’ CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals transferred from bulk-like shell to quantum-confined core,” Photon. Res. 3, 200–205 (2015).
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Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
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Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, M.

Y. Z. Huang, Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. J. Che, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Y. Li, J. Y. Wu, B. Xu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
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Appl. Sci. (1)

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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
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[Crossref]

J. Du, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Chen, X. Zhu, G. Hu, P. Peng, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Phosphorene quantum dot saturable absorbers for ultrafast fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42357 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization of the few-layer TiS2 nanosheets: (a) TEM image of the TiS2 nanosheets; (b) corresponding Raman spectrum of few-layer TiS2 nanosheets; (c) AFM image of few-layer TiS2 nanosheets; (d) height profile of the section marked in (c).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Diagram of fabricating the microfiber-based TiS2 using an optical deposition method; (b) saturable absorption property of the SA device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Configuration of the Er-doped fiber laser for mode-locking operation; (b) output pulse train; (c) optical spectrum; (d) radio frequency spectra, where fs=22.7  MHz and the higher harmonics on a span of 500 MHz; (e) the intensity autocorrelation profile of the generated pulses.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Polarization-resolved spectra of the solitons, with a green line and a red line representing the vertical axis and the horizontal axis, respectively; (b) the total and polarization-resolved soliton pulse trains.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Typical output characteristics of the Q-switched pulses at a pump power of 27.5 mW: (a) optical spectrum; (b) single pulse profile, with a 4.49 μs FWHM pulse width; and (c) radio frequency spectrum of fundamental frequency on a 10 kHz span, where f1=33.387  kHz. (d) Variation of the pulse duration and repetition rate with pump power for the Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser using the few-layer TiS2 SA.

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