Abstract

Conventional Q-switched fiber lasers operating at multi-longitudinal-mode oscillation usually suffer from self-mode-locking-induced temporal instability, relatively strong noise, and low coherence. Here, we address the challenge through demonstrating, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser passively Q-switched by a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). The Bi2Se3 SA prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method shows a modulation depth of 5% and saturation optical intensity of 1.8  MW/cm2. A section of 1-m unpumped EDF together with a 0.06-nm-bandwidth fiber Bragg grating is used as an ultra-narrow autotracking filter to realize SLM oscillation. Stable SLM Q-switching operation at 1.55 μm is successfully achieved with the spectral linewidth as narrow as 212 kHz and the pulse duration of 2.54 μs, manifesting near-transform-limited pulses with a time-bandwidth product of 0.53. In particular, we found that the SLM Q-switching possesses the higher signal-to-noise ratios of 62 dB (optical) and 48 dB (radio frequency), exhibiting its advantages of low noise and high stability. Such an SLM Q-switched fiber laser could gain great interest for some applications in coherent detection, coherent optical communications, and high-sensitivity optical sensing.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (4)

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. He, W. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lü, Y. Li, Q. Wen, J. Li, J. Feng, S. Ruan, Y. Zeng, X. Zhu, Y. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Ultrathin metal-organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2018, 1800561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Jhon, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Topological insulators for mode-locking of 2-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1102208 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T.-C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102  fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Gross, H. Zhang, Z. Guo, M. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for Q-switched mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers,” Ann. Phys. 528, 543–550 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhong, Z. Cai, D. Wu, Y. Cheng, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, B. Xu, and H. Xu, “Passively Q-switched red Pr3+-doped fiber laser with graphene-oxide saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1755–1758 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19997 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, M. Wu, Q. Wang, L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, K. Che, H. Xu, P. Zhang, D. Tang, C. Ren, Z. Luo, and Z. Cai, “Generation of optical frequency combs in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2576–2579 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Gao, and W. Zhang, “Sub-300 femtosecond soliton tunable fiber laser with all-anomalous dispersion passively mode locked by black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 24, 13316–13324 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, Y. Ge, Z. Sun, Z. Huang, R. Cao, C. Zhao, S. Wen, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction in few-layer oxidized black phosphorus,” Photon. Res. 4, 286–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (13)

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ren, S. Wang, Z. Cheng, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and P. Wang, “Passively Q-switched nanosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 5607–5613 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Woodward, R. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Luo, M. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Ning, W. Xu, and Z. Luo, “Few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber as highly nonlinear photonic device for pulse shaping in a fiber laser [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A69–A78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, J. Du, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition as a passive Q-switcher for tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A92–A96 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Jiang, A. Luo, C. Zhao, X. Yu, W. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (12)

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 315–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, X. Yu, X. Li, Z. Yan, and Q. Wang, “High-power thulium fiber laser Q switched with single-layer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 614–617 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 film,” Opt. Express 22, 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130  fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Luo, P. Zhu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, M. Liu, H. Cui, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Microfiber-based, highly nonlinear graphene saturable absorber for formation of versatile structural soliton molecules in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 27019–27025 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

G. Wang, L. Zhan, J. Liu, T. Zhang, J. Li, L. Zhang, J. Peng, and L. Yi, “Watt-level ultrahigh-optical signal-to-noise ratio single-longitudinal-mode tunable Brillouin fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 19–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, K. Balakrishnan, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Fe2+:ZnSe and graphene Q-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 3  μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1365–1377 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4008–4010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on Si(111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520, 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Huang, W. Huang, W. Zhuang, K. Su, Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “High-pulse-energy, passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with AlGaInAs quantum wells as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2360–2362 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Xu, S. Lu, S. Feng, Z. Tan, T. Ning, and S. Jian, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with the fiber-Bragg-grating-based asymmetric two-cavity structure,” Opt. Commun. 282, 962–965 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

V. Philippov, A. Kir’yanov, and S. Unger, “Advanced configuration of erbium fiber passively Q-switched laser with Co2+:ZnSe crystal as saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 57–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

H. Ludvigsen, M. Tossavainen, and M. Kaivola, “Laser linewidth measurements using self-homodyne detection with short delay,” Opt. Commun. 155, 180–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, Y. Chen, and S. Liaw, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with a passive multiple-ring cavity and its application for video transmission,” Opt. Lett. 23, 358–360 (1998).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

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[Crossref]

Abedin, K. S.

Abramski, K. M.

Albrow-Owen, T.

Andrei, E.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on Si(111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520, 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

Bansal, N.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on Si(111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520, 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Basko, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brahlek, M.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on Si(111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520, 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Y. Zhong, Z. Cai, D. Wu, Y. Cheng, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, B. Xu, and H. Xu, “Passively Q-switched red Pr3+-doped fiber laser with graphene-oxide saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1755–1758 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, K. Che, H. Xu, P. Zhang, D. Tang, C. Ren, Z. Luo, and Z. Cai, “Generation of optical frequency combs in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2576–2579 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, G.

Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, Y. Ge, Z. Sun, Z. Huang, R. Cao, C. Zhao, S. Wen, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction in few-layer oxidized black phosphorus,” Photon. Res. 4, 286–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chardon, A. M.

Che, K.

Chen, H.

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19997 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. Liu, H. Yang, and S. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, N.

D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Chen, S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Gao, and W. Zhang, “Sub-300 femtosecond soliton tunable fiber laser with all-anomalous dispersion passively mode locked by black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 24, 13316–13324 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 315–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Gao, and W. Zhang, “Sub-300 femtosecond soliton tunable fiber laser with all-anomalous dispersion passively mode locked by black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 24, 13316–13324 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ren, S. Wang, Z. Cheng, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and P. Wang, “Passively Q-switched nanosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 5607–5613 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 315–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, W. Huang, W. Zhuang, K. Su, Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “High-pulse-energy, passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with AlGaInAs quantum wells as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2360–2362 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, Y. Chen, and S. Liaw, “Single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with a passive multiple-ring cavity and its application for video transmission,” Opt. Lett. 23, 358–360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, X.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Zhong, Z. Cai, D. Wu, Y. Cheng, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, B. Xu, and H. Xu, “Passively Q-switched red Pr3+-doped fiber laser with graphene-oxide saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1755–1758 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Chi, S.

Chien, H. C.

Chow, K.

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cui, H.

Cui, X.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dolfi, D.

Dong, B.

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Dou, Z.

Du, B.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, J. Du, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition as a passive Q-switcher for tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A92–A96 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 315–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edrey, E.

N. Bansal, Y. S. Kim, E. Edrey, M. Brahlek, Y. Horibe, K. Iida, M. Tanimura, G. H. Li, T. Feng, H. D. Lee, T. Gustafsson, E. Andrei, and S. Oh, “Epitaxial growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 film on Si(111) with atomically sharp interface,” Thin Solid Films 520, 224–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Feng, J.

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X. Jiang, S. Gross, H. Zhang, Z. Guo, M. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for Q-switched mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers,” Ann. Phys. 528, 543–550 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
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[Crossref]

D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
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Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
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J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
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Z. Luo, M. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Jiang, A. Luo, C. Zhao, X. Yu, W. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
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Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 315–322 (2014).
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Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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S. Lu, Y. Ge, Z. Sun, Z. Huang, R. Cao, C. Zhao, S. Wen, D. Fan, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction in few-layer oxidized black phosphorus,” Photon. Res. 4, 286–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Jiang, A. Luo, C. Zhao, X. Yu, W. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. Zheng, A. Luo, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and W. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on an ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Zheng, X.

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Y. Zhong, Z. Cai, D. Wu, Y. Cheng, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, B. Xu, and H. Xu, “Passively Q-switched red Pr3+-doped fiber laser with graphene-oxide saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1755–1758 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, Z. Cai, Y. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “635-nm visible Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers Q-switched by topological insulators SAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
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Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550  nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Santa Fe, New Mexico (OSA, 2004), paper 126.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization of the as-prepared few-layer Bi2Se3. (a) TEM image, (b) AFM image, (c) height profile diagram, and (d) measured saturable absorption curve at 1.56 μm wavelength.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experiment setup of the proposed narrow-linewidth single-frequency passively Q-switched EDFL. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; PC, polarization controller; OC, optical coupler. Inset: transmission spectrum of the narrow-bandwidth FBG.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. MLM Q-switching characteristics. (a) Optical spectrum of the MLM Q-switched laser; (b) RF output spectrum of the MLM Q-switched laser in 100-MHz span (inset: 1-GHz span); (c) typical oscilloscope traces of the MLM Q-switched pulse trains; (d) single pulse envelope from the MLM Q-switched laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SLM Q-switching characteristics. (a) Optical spectrum of the SLM Q-switched laser in a 30-nm span; (b) optical spectrum comparison of the SLM (red line) and the MLM (gray line) Q-switched lasers; (c) RF output spectrum comparison of the SLM (red solid line) and the MLM (gray dashed line) Q-switched lasers; (d) laser linewidth measurement with a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 kHz by employing a self-heterodyne method; experimental data (red solid line), fitting (blue solid line), and equipment background (black dashed line).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Typical oscilloscope traces of the SLM Q-switched pulse trains; (b) evolution of the single-pulse envelope; (c) repetition-rate and pulse duration as a function of the incident pump power; (d) RF output spectrum (inset: broadband RF output spectrum); (e) output power versus pump power.

Equations (1)

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T=1αLΔα/(1+I/Isat).