Abstract

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are successfully applied in fiber lasers for their photoelectric properties. However, in previous work, how to improve the modulation depth of TMD-based saturable absorbers (SAs) has been a challenging issue. In this paper, WSe2 and MoSe2 SAs are fabricated with the chemical vapor deposition method. Compared with previous experiments, the modulation depths of WSe2 and MoSe2 SAs with sandwiched structures are effectively increased to 31.25% and 25.69%, respectively. The all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber lasers based on WSe2 and MoSe2 SAs are demonstrated. The signal-to-noise ratios of those lasers are measured to be 72 and 57 dB, respectively. Results indicate that the proposed WSe2 and MoSe2 SAs are efficient photonic devices to realize stable fiber lasers.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective,” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. X. Liu, Z. J. Li, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Yue, X. T. Jiang, J. Q. Li, Q. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Graphene/phosphorene nano-heterojunction: facile synthesis, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast photonics applications with enhanced performance,” Photon. Res. 5, 662–668 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. D. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. F. Li, J. Riikonen, F. W. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. P. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, H. Chen, J. Yin, Z. Xu, J. Li, Z. Jiang, W. Zhang, J. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. Sun, and S. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9, 1871–1877 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, K. Bi, M. Lei, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten disulphide for ultrashort pulse generation in all-fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 9, 5806–5811 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, M. Liu, M. Lei, S. Fang, H. Teng, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten disulfide saturable absorbers for 67  fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 25, 2950–2959 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. T. Wang, Z. K. Jiang, H. Chen, J. R. Li, J. D. Yin, J. Z. Wang, T. C. He, P. G. Yan, and S. C. Ruan, “Magnetron sputtering deposited WTe2 for ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5010–5013 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, S. Sathiyan, and S. A. Reduan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 93–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Yang, X. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Ren, M. Liu, and Z. Qi, “Anharmonicity of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2: a Raman study under high pressure and elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 093108 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

D. Mao, B. B. Du, D. X. Yang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, W. D. Zhang, X. Y. She, H. C. Cheng, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Pang, W. Liu, W. Tian, H. Han, and Z. Wei, “Nanosecond hybrid Q-Switched Er-doped fiber laser with WS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1501907 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8, 7704–7710 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Prein, N. Warmbold, Z. Farkas, M. Schieker, A. Aszodi, and H. Clausen-Schaumann, “Structural and mechanical properties of the proliferative zone of the developing murine growth plate cartilage assessed by atomic force microscopy,” Matrix Biol. 50, 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, B. Che, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Investigation on the stability of WSe2-PVA saturable absorber in an all PM Q-switched fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503612 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, S. B. Lee, K. Lee, and D. Yeom, “All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6  nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 14152–14158 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. S. Chen, J. D. Yin, X. J. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. G. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24, 16287–16296 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (18)

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527, 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, W. S. Kwon, J. H. Kim, D. Kang, and S. Kim, “Polarization insensitive graphene saturable absorbers using etched fiber for highly stable ultrafast fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 22116–22122 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, H. D. Xia, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, X. X. Zhang, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, J. Du, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition as a passive Q-switcher for tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A92–A96 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. F. Zhang, N. N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. X. Chang, Y. Y. Feng, Y. X. Li, N. N. Dong, K. P. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of wafer-scale MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale 7, 2978–2986 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. H. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for subbandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. H. Hu, G. Q. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. B. Jiang, S. Q. Chen, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Yu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, A. J. Liu, Y. S. Chen, H. Chen, S. C. Ruan, C. Y. Guo, S. F. Chen, I. L. Li, H. P. Yang, J. G. Hu, and G. Z. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, and X. Wan, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photon. Res. 3, A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ren, S. Wang, Z. Cheng, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and P. Wang, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 5607–5613 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer molybdenum disulfide saturable absorber: from Q-switching to mode-locking,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Xia, X. Huang, L. Z. Liu, M. Wang, L. Wang, and B. Huang, “CVD synthesis of large-area, highly crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on diverse substrates and application to photodetectors,” Nanoscale 6, 8949–8955 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. T. Xu, J. P. Zhai, J. S. Wang, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Q. Yu, “Passively Q-switching induced by the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. D. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, X. X. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, and J. Li, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576–5580 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Fang, S. Chuang, T. C. Chang, K. Takei, and T. Takahashi, “High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts,” Nano Lett. 12, 3788–3792 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, S. Sathiyan, and S. A. Reduan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 93–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aksimsek, S.

D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. D. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. F. Li, J. Riikonen, F. W. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. P. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aszodi, A.

C. Prein, N. Warmbold, Z. Farkas, M. Schieker, A. Aszodi, and H. Clausen-Schaumann, “Structural and mechanical properties of the proliferative zone of the developing murine growth plate cartilage assessed by atomic force microscopy,” Matrix Biol. 50, 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ataca, C.

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, and J. Li, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576–5580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bai, J. T.

D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. D. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. F. Li, J. Riikonen, F. W. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. P. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Berner, N. C.

S. F. Zhang, N. N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bi, K.

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, K. Bi, M. Lei, and Z. Wei, “Tungsten disulphide for ultrashort pulse generation in all-fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 9, 5806–5811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. X. Chang, Y. Y. Feng, Y. X. Li, N. N. Dong, K. P. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of wafer-scale MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale 7, 2978–2986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

B. Braun, F. Kärtner, G. Zhang, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “56-ps passively Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 381–383 (1997).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Cao, G. Z.

Cha, Y. H.

Chang, C. X.

X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. X. Chang, Y. Y. Feng, Y. X. Li, N. N. Dong, K. P. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of wafer-scale MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale 7, 2978–2986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. C.

H. Fang, S. Chuang, T. C. Chang, K. Takei, and T. Takahashi, “High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts,” Nano Lett. 12, 3788–3792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Che, B.

C. Guo, B. Che, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Investigation on the stability of WSe2-PVA saturable absorber in an all PM Q-switched fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503612 (2016).
[Crossref]

Che, K.

Chekurov, N.

D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. D. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. F. Li, J. Riikonen, F. W. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. P. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. H.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective,” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

B. Chen, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, B. Che, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Investigation on the stability of WSe2-PVA saturable absorber in an all PM Q-switched fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503612 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. P.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective,” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, G. H. Hu, G. Q. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. F.

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. B. Jiang, S. Q. Chen, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Yu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ren, S. Wang, Z. Cheng, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and P. Wang, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23, 5607–5613 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

X. T. Xu, J. P. Zhai, J. S. Wang, Y. P. Chen, and Y. Q. Yu, “Passively Q-switching induced by the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

Chen, Z.

R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8, 7704–7710 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. H.

S. F. Zhang, N. N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

D. Mao, B. B. Du, D. X. Yang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, W. D. Zhang, X. Y. She, H. C. Cheng, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

M. Yang, X. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Ren, M. Liu, and Z. Qi, “Anharmonicity of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2: a Raman study under high pressure and elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 093108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Choi, S. Y.

Choi, W. K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527, 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, S. Chen, Z. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yi, H. Zhang, L. Liao, P. K. Chu, and X. Yu, “Metal-ion-modified black phosphorus with enhanced stability and transistor performance,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1703811 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.

H. Fang, S. Chuang, T. C. Chang, K. Takei, and T. Takahashi, “High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts,” Nano Lett. 12, 3788–3792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clausen-Schaumann, H.

C. Prein, N. Warmbold, Z. Farkas, M. Schieker, A. Aszodi, and H. Clausen-Schaumann, “Structural and mechanical properties of the proliferative zone of the developing murine growth plate cartilage assessed by atomic force microscopy,” Matrix Biol. 50, 1–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

D. Li, H. Xue, M. Qi, Y. D. Wang, S. Aksimsek, N. Chekurov, W. Kim, C. F. Li, J. Riikonen, F. W. Ye, Q. Dai, Z. Y. Ren, J. T. Bai, T. Hasan, H. Lipsanen, and Z. P. Sun, “Graphene actively Q-switched lasers,” 2D Mater. 4, 025095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dhanabalan, S. C.

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, N. N.

S. F. Zhang, N. N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. X. Chang, Y. Y. Feng, Y. X. Li, N. N. Dong, K. P. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of wafer-scale MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale 7, 2978–2986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, B.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, B. B.

D. Mao, B. B. Du, D. X. Yang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, W. D. Zhang, X. Y. She, H. C. Cheng, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Duesberg, G. S.

S. F. Zhang, N. N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Y. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9, 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700221 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, D. Y.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, S. Chuang, T. C. Chang, K. Takei, and T. Takahashi, “High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts,” Nano Lett. 12, 3788–3792 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, S.

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farkas, Z.

C. Prein, N. Warmbold, Z. Farkas, M. Schieker, A. Aszodi, and H. Clausen-Schaumann, “Structural and mechanical properties of the proliferative zone of the developing murine growth plate cartilage assessed by atomic force microscopy,” Matrix Biol. 50, 1–15 (2016).
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Zhang, S. J.

Zhang, S. L.

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[Crossref]

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P. G. Yan, H. Chen, J. Yin, Z. Xu, J. Li, Z. Jiang, W. Zhang, J. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. Sun, and S. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9, 1871–1877 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
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D. Mao, B. B. Du, D. X. Yang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, W. D. Zhang, X. Y. She, H. C. Cheng, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

B. Chen, C. Guo, K. Wu, J. Chen, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081306 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, B. Che, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Investigation on the stability of WSe2-PVA saturable absorber in an all PM Q-switched fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1503612 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (3)

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Small (1)

D. Mao, B. B. Du, D. X. Yang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, W. D. Zhang, X. Y. She, H. C. Cheng, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) AFM overview of WSe2. (b) Function curve of height and lateral distance of the WSe2 SA. (c) TEM detail image of the WSe2 SA at scale bar length of 10 nm. (d) AFM image of MoSe2. (e) Function curve of height and lateral distance of the MoSe2 SA. (f) TEM detail image of the MoSe2 SA at high resolution of 10 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Absorption spectrum of WSe2. (b) Absorption spectrum of MoSe2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Effective coverage area of WSe2 material in the case of no light passing. (b) The light passing through the effective area of material.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Raman spectrum of the WSe2 SA. (b) Raman spectrum of the MoSe2 SA. (c) Non-linear saturable absorption of the WSe2 SA. (d) Non-linear saturable absorption of the MoSe2 SA.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) and (b) are the XPS profiles of WSe2. (c) and (d) are the XPS profiles of MoSe2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the passively Q-switched pulse fiber laser on the basis of WSe2 and MoSe2 SAs. Pump is the laser diode with a center wavelength of 976 nm; WDM is the wavelength division multiplexer; WSe2/MoSe2 SA is the saturable absorber; EDF is the erbium-doped gain fiber; PI-ISO is the polarization independent isolator; PC is the polarization controller; OC is the optical coupler.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimental results of passively Q-switched pulse fiber laser based on the WSe2 SA. (a) Pulse trains at different power levels. (b) Single pulse sequence at maximum pump power of 680 mW. (c) Optical spectrum. (d) RF spectrum at 300 Hz RBW.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The trend of repetition and duration as the pump power is boosted. (b) Output power and pulse energy under variable power.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Experimental results of Q-switched fiber laser based on the MoSe2 SA. (a) Pulse trains at different power levels. (b) Single pulse sequence at maximum pump power of 680 mW. (c) Optical spectrum. (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Trends of repetition and duration as the pump power is boosted. (b) Output power and pulse energy under variable power.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance Comparison of the Passively Q-Switched Fiber Laser Based on the WSe2 SAa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Performance Comparison of the Passively Q-Switched Fiber Laser Based on the MoSe2 SA

Tables Icon

Table 3. Performance Comparison with MoS2-Based Q-Switched Fiber Lasers

Equations (1)

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α(I)=αs1+I/Isat+αns,