Abstract

Searching for an ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse on the order of hundreds of gigahertz (GHz) is still a challenging task in the ultrafast laser community. Recently, high-quality silicon/silica-based resonators were exploited to generate a high-repetition-rate pulse based on the filter-driven four-wave mixing effect in fiber lasers. However, despite their great performance, the silicon/silica-based resonators still have some drawbacks, such as single waveband operation and low coupling efficiency between the fiber and resonators. To overcome these drawbacks, herein we proposed an all-fiber broadband resonator fabricated by depositing the graphene onto a microfiber knot. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the graphene-deposited broadband microfiber knot resonator (MKR) was applied to Er- and Yb-doped fiber lasers operating at two different wavebands, respectively, to efficiently generate hundreds-of-GHz-repetition-rate pulses. Such a graphene-deposited broadband MKR could open some new applications in ultrafast laser technology, broadband optical frequency comb generation, and other related fields of photonics.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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Corrections

26 September 2018: A typographical correction was made to the title.


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References

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2018 (1)

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, Q. Yang, L. Wang, X. Hu, L. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Repetition rate multiplication pulsed laser source based on a microring resonator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1677–1683 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. T. Jiang, S. X. Liu, W. Y. Liang, S. J. Luo, Z. L. He, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Q. Li, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (12)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 951–954 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1374–1377 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photon. Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, B. C. Yao, Q. Y. Feng, X. L. Cao, X. Y. Zhou, Y. J. Rao, Y. Gong, W. L. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, and K. S. Chiang, “Generation of cascaded four-wave-mixing with graphene-coated microfiber,” Photon. Res. 3, A64–A68 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Luo, M. Liu, X. D. Wang, Q. Y. Ning, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber as highly nonlinear photonic device for pulse shaping in a fiber laser [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A69–A78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. H. Tang, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, G. B. Jiang, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Jyu, L. G. Yang, C. Y. Wong, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “250-GHz passive harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by dissipative four-wave mixing with silicon-based micro-ring,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1502107 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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2012 (6)

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
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W. Fan, J. L. Gan, Z. S. Zhang, X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, and Z. M. Yang, “Narrow linewidth single frequency microfiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4323–4325 (2012).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 27355–27363 (2012).
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M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012).
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Z. Y. Zhang, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Resan, S. Kurmulis, K. J. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Mangold, T. Suedmeyer, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, and R. A. Hogg, “1.55  μm InAs/GaAs quantum dots and high repetition rate quantum dot SESAM mode-locked laser,” Sci. Rep. 2, 477 (2012).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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2011 (5)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping of on-chip microring resonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
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M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two‐dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
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A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-gigahertz repetition rate passively mode locked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19, 6155–6163 (2011).
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Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
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2010 (6)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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2009 (4)

2008 (2)

J. Schröder, D. Alasia, T. Sylvestre, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of an ultrahigh-repetition-rate passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1178–1186 (2008).
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F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
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2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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2006 (3)

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
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X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
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J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, and T. Sylvestre, “Passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser with 100  GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3489–3491 (2006).
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2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
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1999 (1)

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).
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1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fibre laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32, 461–463 (1996).
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Alasia, D.

Andrekson, P. A.

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

X. T. Jiang, S. X. Liu, W. Y. Liang, S. J. Luo, Z. L. He, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Q. Li, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Barsoum, M. W.

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two‐dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
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Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Blow, K. J.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).
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Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Brambilla, G.

Cai, Z.

Cao, R.

X. T. Jiang, S. X. Liu, W. Y. Liang, S. J. Luo, Z. L. He, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Q. Li, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
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Cao, X. L.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Chembo, Y. K.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Chen, H.

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 951–954 (2015).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
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Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping of on-chip microring resonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
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Chen, S.

Chen, S. Q.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. H. Tang, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, G. B. Jiang, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
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Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y. X.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
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Chiang, K. S.

Chien, H. C.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
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Chiu, H. Y.

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
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Chong, A.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
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Chow, C. W.

L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
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S. S. Jyu, L. G. Yang, C. Y. Wong, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “250-GHz passive harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by dissipative four-wave mixing with silicon-based micro-ring,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1502107 (2013).
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Christiansen, P. L.

Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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Chu, S. T.

W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, Q. Yang, L. Wang, X. Hu, L. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Repetition rate multiplication pulsed laser source based on a microring resonator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1677–1683 (2017).
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M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 27355–27363 (2012).
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Ciesielski, R.

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
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Clausen, C. B.

Coen, S.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Schröder, D. Alasia, T. Sylvestre, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of an ultrahigh-repetition-rate passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1178–1186 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, and T. Sylvestre, “Passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser with 100  GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3489–3491 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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Comin, A.

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Dong, X. Y.

Donkers, K.

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. H. Tang, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, G. B. Jiang, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Ellis, A. D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).
[Crossref]

Erkintalo, M.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Fan, D. Y.

X. T. Jiang, S. X. Liu, W. Y. Liang, S. J. Luo, Z. L. He, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Q. Li, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q. Y.

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping of on-chip microring resonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Finazzi, V.

Foster, M. A.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21, 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gan, J. L.

Gan, X.

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y. Q.

X. T. Jiang, S. X. Liu, W. Y. Liang, S. J. Luo, Z. L. He, Y. Q. Ge, H. D. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Q. Li, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
[Crossref]

Godbout, N.

Gogotsi, Y.

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two‐dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58–73 (2008).
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Wong, C. Y.

L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
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S. S. Jyu, L. G. Yang, C. Y. Wong, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “250-GHz passive harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by dissipative four-wave mixing with silicon-based micro-ring,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1502107 (2013).
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Wu, D.

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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
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Wu, K.

Wu, M.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. H. Tang, S. Q. Chen, J. Du, G. B. Jiang, Y. Li, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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Xu, W. C.

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Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
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P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 951–954 (2015).
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L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
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S. S. Jyu, L. G. Yang, C. Y. Wong, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “250-GHz passive harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by dissipative four-wave mixing with silicon-based micro-ring,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1502107 (2013).
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Yang, Q.

W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, Q. Yang, L. Wang, X. Hu, L. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Repetition rate multiplication pulsed laser source based on a microring resonator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1677–1683 (2017).
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X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
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X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
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Yang, Z. M.

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D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
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Yeh, C. H.

L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
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S. S. Jyu, L. G. Yang, C. Y. Wong, C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “250-GHz passive harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by dissipative four-wave mixing with silicon-based micro-ring,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1502107 (2013).
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E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Low-threshold 115-GHz continuous-wave modulational-instability erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1409–1411 (1997).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Yu, X.

Yu, X. F.

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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
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P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 951–954 (2015).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
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Zhang, J.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
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Zhang, K.

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
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Zhang, S. M.

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W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, Q. Yang, L. Wang, X. Hu, L. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Repetition rate multiplication pulsed laser source based on a microring resonator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1677–1683 (2017).
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Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X.

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Zheng, X. W.

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Z. Y. Zhang, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Resan, S. Kurmulis, K. J. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Mangold, T. Suedmeyer, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, and R. A. Hogg, “1.55  μm InAs/GaAs quantum dots and high repetition rate quantum dot SESAM mode-locked laser,” Sci. Rep. 2, 477 (2012).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

R. Wang, H. C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, Q. Yang, L. Wang, X. Hu, L. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Repetition rate multiplication pulsed laser source based on a microring resonator,” ACS Photon. 4, 1677–1683 (2017).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lu, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two‐dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
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X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, A. Tsao, Q. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
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X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fibre laser by self-phase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32, 461–463 (1996).
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IEEE Photon. J. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

Y. Q. Ge, S. Chen, Y. J. Xu, Z. L. He, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, D. Y. Fan, K. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer selenium-doped black phosphorus: synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 6129–6135 (2017).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

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L. G. Yang, S. S. Jyu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, and Y. Lai, “A 110  GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear silicon-micro-ring-resonator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065101 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (1)

R. Ciesielski, A. Comin, M. Handloser, K. Donkers, G. Piredda, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Graphene near-degenerate four-wave mixing for phase characterization of broadband pulses in ultrafast microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 4968–4972 (2015).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. Hui Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (5)

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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2010).
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Opt. Express (9)

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-gigahertz repetition rate passively mode locked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19, 6155–6163 (2011).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1374–1377 (2015).
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H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Microscopy image of the fabricated MKR; (b) microscopy image of the graphene-deposited MKR; (c) scattering evanescent field along the graphene-deposited MKR.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectral response of the graphene-deposited MKR. Red solid line, measured spectral response of the graphene-deposited MKR; blue dotted line, theoretically calculated spectral response of the graphene-deposited MKR.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the ultrafast fiber laser used in the experiment.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. FD-FWM mode-locking operation in the EDF laser based on graphene-deposited MKR. (a) Output spectrum; (b) corresponding autocorrelation trace.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Stability of the proposed FD-FWM mode-locked fiber laser. (a) Repeatedly scanned output; (b) power fluctuation tracking.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. FD-FWM mode-locking operation in the YDF laser based on graphene-deposited MKR. (a) Output spectrum; (b) autocorrelation trace; (c) repeatedly scanned output 20 times with a 5-min interval; (d) power fluctuation of each lasing line within 100 min.

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