Abstract

In this paper, normal incidence vertical p-i-n photodetectors on a germanium-on-insulator (GOI) platform were demonstrated. The vertical p-i-n structure was realized by ion-implanting boron and arsenic at the bottom and top of the Ge layer, respectively, during the GOI fabrication. Abrupt doping profiles were verified in the transferred high-quality Ge layer. The photodetectors exhibit a dark current density of 47  mA/cm2 at 1  V and an optical responsivity of 0.39 A/W at 1550 nm, which are improved compared with state-of-the-art demonstrated GOI photodetectors. An internal quantum efficiency of 97% indicates excellent carrier collection efficiency of the device. The photodetectors with mesa diameter of 60 μm exhibit a 3 dB bandwidth of 1  GHz, which agrees well with theoretical calculations. The bandwidth is expected to improve to 32  GHz with mesa diameter of 10 μm. This work could be similarly extended to GOI platforms with other intermediate layers and potentially enrich the functional diversity of GOI for near-infrared sensing and communication integrated with Ge CMOS and mid-infrared photonics.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2017 (2)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, L. Virot, J. Aubin, K. Guilloy, S. Tardif, J. M. Fédéli, N. Pauc, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Germanium based photonic components toward a full silicon/germanium photonic platform,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 63, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Bao, K. H. Lee, C. Wang, B. Wang, R. I. Made, S. F. Yoon, J. Michel, E. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-insulator virtual substrate for InGaP epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 58, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

H. Wu and P. D. Ye, “Fully depleted Ge CMOS devices and logic circuits on Si,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 63, 3028–3035 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-Insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24, 11855–11864 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S. Y. Lee, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23, 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics: Enabling 2  μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9, 358–359 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, D. Nam, W. S. Jung, T. I. Kamins, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon,” Opt Express 23, 15816–15823 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Defects reduction of Ge epitaxial film in a germanium-on-insulator wafer by annealing in oxygen ambient,” APL Mater. 3, 016102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-insulator through epitaxy, bonding, and layer transfer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 103506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, S. Takeuchi, Y. Kamimuta, Y. Nakamura, K. Izunome, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Ultrathin-body Ge-on-insulator wafers fabricated with strongly bonded thin Al2O3/SiO2 hybrid buried oxide layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 086501 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3, 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, B. Cheng, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-bandwidth and high-responsivity top-illuminated germanium photodiodes for optical interconnection,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 1183–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Tani, S.-I. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, K. Hamaya, M. Miyao, and Y. Shiraki, “Formation of tensilely strained germanium-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 015701 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, J. He, R. Wang, C. Li, and J. Yu, “Normal incidence p-i–n Ge heterojunction photodiodes on Si substrate grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3404–3407 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 672–674 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Hyun-Yong Yu, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16, 11513–11518 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. S. Yu, H. L. Kao, A. Chin, and S. P. McAlister, “Performance and potential of germanium on insulator field-effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 690–693 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. M. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Geepitaxial films onSi(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155309 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. Taraschi, T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Relaxed SiGe-on-insulator fabricated via wafer bonding and etch back,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 725–727 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref]

Afshinmanesh, F.

J. H. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, D. Nam, W. S. Jung, T. I. Kamins, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon,” Opt Express 23, 15816–15823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3, 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
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Ang, K.-W.

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G. Taraschi, T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Relaxed SiGe-on-insulator fabricated via wafer bonding and etch back,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 725–727 (2002).
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Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
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Assanto, G.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, L. Virot, J. Aubin, K. Guilloy, S. Tardif, J. M. Fédéli, N. Pauc, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Germanium based photonic components toward a full silicon/germanium photonic platform,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 63, 1–24 (2017).
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Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
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Balbi, M.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balram, K. C.

Bao, S.

S. Bao, K. H. Lee, C. Wang, B. Wang, R. I. Made, S. F. Yoon, J. Michel, E. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-insulator virtual substrate for InGaP epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 58, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Defects reduction of Ge epitaxial film in a germanium-on-insulator wafer by annealing in oxygen ambient,” APL Mater. 3, 016102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-insulator through epitaxy, bonding, and layer transfer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 103506 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, Y. Lin, W. Li, P. Anantha, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Michel, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Hetero-epitaxy of high quality germanium film on silicon substrate for optoelectronic integrated circuit applications,” J. Mater. Res.1–16 (2017).
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Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
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Bellet Amalric, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
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M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).
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Brongersma, M. L.

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J. R. Jain, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Balram, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, D. A. B. Miller, and R. T. Howe, “Tensile-strained germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication for silicon-compatible optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1121–1126 (2011).
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Cai, Y.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
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R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
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Calvo, V.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, L. Virot, J. Aubin, K. Guilloy, S. Tardif, J. M. Fédéli, N. Pauc, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Germanium based photonic components toward a full silicon/germanium photonic platform,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 63, 1–24 (2017).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. M. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Geepitaxial films onSi(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155309 (2004).

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
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Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chelnokov, A.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, L. Virot, J. Aubin, K. Guilloy, S. Tardif, J. M. Fédéli, N. Pauc, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Germanium based photonic components toward a full silicon/germanium photonic platform,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 63, 1–24 (2017).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. M. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, B. Cheng, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-bandwidth and high-responsivity top-illuminated germanium photodiodes for optical interconnection,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 1183–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chin, A.

D. S. Yu, H. L. Kao, A. Chin, and S. P. McAlister, “Performance and potential of germanium on insulator field-effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 690–693 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chong, G. Y.

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Defects reduction of Ge epitaxial film in a germanium-on-insulator wafer by annealing in oxygen ambient,” APL Mater. 3, 016102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-insulator through epitaxy, bonding, and layer transfer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 103506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, 2009), p. 840.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10Gbit/s,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Currie, M. T.

G. Taraschi, T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Relaxed SiGe-on-insulator fabricated via wafer bonding and etch back,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 725–727 (2002).
[Crossref]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. M. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Geepitaxial films onSi(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155309 (2004).

Dong, P.

Dong, Y.

Duchemin, I.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Faist, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, L. Virot, J. Aubin, K. Guilloy, S. Tardif, J. M. Fédéli, N. Pauc, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Germanium based photonic components toward a full silicon/germanium photonic platform,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 63, 1–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E.

S. Bao, K. H. Lee, C. Wang, B. Wang, R. I. Made, S. F. Yoon, J. Michel, E. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-insulator virtual substrate for InGaP epitaxy,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 58, 15–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Defects reduction of Ge epitaxial film in a germanium-on-insulator wafer by annealing in oxygen ambient,” APL Mater. 3, 016102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, G. Y. Chong, Y. H. Tan, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-insulator through epitaxy, bonding, and layer transfer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 103506 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Taraschi, T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Relaxed SiGe-on-insulator fabricated via wafer bonding and etch back,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 725–727 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, Y. Lin, W. Li, P. Anantha, L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Michel, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Hetero-epitaxy of high quality germanium film on silicon substrate for optoelectronic integrated circuit applications,” J. Mater. Res.1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fowler, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200  mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).

Frigerio, J.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 191904 (2015).
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IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of bonding and layer transfer technique for GOI p-i-n structure fabrication.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SIMS doping profiles of B and As in Ge vertical p-i-n structure. Inset shows a corresponding cross-sectional TEM image of the fabricated GOI p-i-n structure at bonding interface. (b) HRXRD (004) 2θω scan of as-grown Ge-on-Si and GOI p-i-n structure with that of bulk Ge as reference. Tensile strain of 0.15% for the Ge layer in the GOI was obtained. The values in the plot correspond to the respective peak 2θω angles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Cross-sectional schematic of a GOI vertical p-i-n photodetector (PD) and (b) its optical microscope image with a mesa diameter of 80 μm. The FESEM image above presents the cross-sectional view of the detector along the green solid line across the mesa.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Dark current density-voltage characteristic of GOI vertical p-i-n PDs with different mesa diameters. (b) Temperature-dependent study on dark current of GOI vertical p-i-n PD at 0.5  V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Photocurrent of a GOI vertical p-i-n PD (mesa diameter of 250 μm) as a function of applied bias, with its dark I-V characteristic as a reference. Inset shows the corresponding measurement configuration. (b) Optical responsivity spectrum of GOI vertical p-i-n PD across C- and L- telecommunication bands. Inset shows the corresponding first-order derivative of the responsivity spectrum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Performance comparison of Ge-based PDs. i-Ge thicknesses for the corresponding Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI devices (without AR coating) in the references (numbers in square brackets) were indicated. The i-Ge thicknesses for GOI PDs were not indicated due to their discrepant configurations (interdigitated lateral p-i-n [19] and waveguide-integrated [21]).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Frequency response of GOI vertical p-i-n PD (mesa diameter of 60 μm) at 2  V. Inset shows device series resistance extracted from I-V characteristics. (b) Calculated 3 dB bandwidth of GOI vertical p-i-n detector (Rs=30Ω) with respect to its mesa diameter (red solid line). The dashed line represents the corresponding carrier transit-limited bandwidth. Inset shows linear interpolation of device capacitances at 2  V for de-coupling of junction and parasitic capacitances. (c) Calculated 3 dB bandwidth of the PD with mesa diameter of 10 μm with respect to i-Ge thickness.

Equations (9)

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Idark=BT1.5eEakT{exp[qV/(e2kT)]1},
r=|n1n2n1+n2|2,
R=λ(μm)1.24(1r)ηintexp(αGednGe)[1exp(αGediGe)],
EgLH=EgδEhy14δEsh+12Δ12(Δ2+Δ·δEsh+94δEsh2)1/2,
EgHH=EgδEhy+12δEsh,
f3dB=(1ftransit2+fRC2)1/2,
fRC=12πRC,
ftransit=0.45vsatdiGe,
C=ACj60μm+Cp,