Abstract

The criterion of achieving efficient passive Q-switching is analyzed to design an off-axis pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG laser with a degenerate cavity. Experimental results reveal that pure high-order HG0,m or HGm,0 eigenmodes with the order m between 0 and 14 can be generated, depending on the off-axis displacement along the y axis or the x axis. On the other hand, lasing modes naturally turn into planar geometric modes when the off-axis displacement is larger than the value for exciting the HG0,m or HGm,0 eigenmodes with m>14. The overall peak powers for high-order eigenmodes or geometric modes can exceed 140 W. Furthermore, the high-order eigenmodes and geometric modes are employed to generate vortex beams with large orbital angular momentum by using an external cylindrical mode converter. Theoretical analyses are performed to confirm experimental results and to manifest the phase structures of the generated vortex beams.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. A. Malyutin, “Closed laser-beam trajectories in plano-spherical resonators with Gaussian apertures,” Quantum Electron. 38, 181–186 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2004 (3)

2001 (2)

J. Dingjan, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Geometric modes in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 188, 345–351 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4–Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Degeneration effects in laser cavities,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 293–298 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

H. Laabs and B. Ozygus, “Excitation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers via off-axis pumping,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 213–214 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander, “Optical vortex trapping of particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 827–829 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, “Beam transformations and nontransformed beams,” Opt. Commun. 83, 123–135 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abramochkin, E. G.

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, “Beam transformations and nontransformed beams,” Opt. Commun. 83, 123–135 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Alpmann, C.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoki, N.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, S. C.

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bandres, M. A.

Barnett, S. M.

Bass, M.

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bernet, S.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Lan, and K. F. Huang, “Wave representation of geometrical laser beam trajectories in a hemiconfocal cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4–Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chiang, P. Y.

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

Courtial, J.

Coyle, D. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Denz, C.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dingjan, J.

J. Dingjan, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Geometric modes in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 188, 345–351 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

Erhard, J.

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

Esseling, M.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Fürhapter, S.

Gahagan, K. T.

Gibson, G.

Gutiérrez-Vega, J. C.

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

He, H. S.

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2005), Chaps. 8 and 12.

Huang, K. F.

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Lan, and K. F. Huang, “Wave representation of geometrical laser beam trajectories in a hemiconfocal cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Izdebskaya, Y. V.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

Jiang, C. H.

Y. F. Chen, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Lan, and K. F. Huang, “Wave representation of geometrical laser beam trajectories in a hemiconfocal cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jung, G. B.

Kamikariya, K.

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kanaya, K.

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kay, R. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

Krolikowski, W.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laabs, H.

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Laabs and B. Ozygus, “Excitation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers via off-axis pumping,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 213–214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Lan, and K. F. Huang, “Wave representation of geometrical laser beam trajectories in a hemiconfocal cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. C.

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. H.

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

Malyutin, A. A.

A. A. Malyutin, “Closed laser-beam trajectories in plano-spherical resonators with Gaussian apertures,” Quantum Electron. 38, 181–186 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marte, M. R.

Miyamoto, K.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tanaka, M. Okida, K. Miyamoto, and T. Omatsu, “High power picosecond vortex laser based on a large-mode-area fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 17, 14362–14366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morita, R.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

Ohtomo, T.

Okida, M.

Omatsu, T.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tanaka, M. Okida, K. Miyamoto, and T. Omatsu, “High power picosecond vortex laser based on a large-mode-area fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 17, 14362–14366 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Jung, K. Kanaya, and T. Omatsu, “Highly efficient phase-conjugation of a 1 μm pico-second Laguerre–Gaussian beam,” Opt. Express 14, 2250–2255 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

Otsuka, K.

Ozygus, B.

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Degeneration effects in laser cavities,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 293–298 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Laabs and B. Ozygus, “Excitation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers via off-axis pumping,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 213–214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Rode, A. V.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shvedov, V. G.

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Swartzlander, G. A.

Takahashi, F.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takizawa, S.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Tanda, S.

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

Tokizane, Y.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
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G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, K.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, S. W.

Y. F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4–Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tung, J. C.

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K. I.

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
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van Exter, M. P.

J. Dingjan, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Geometric modes in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 188, 345–351 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Volostnikov, V. G.

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, “Beam transformations and nontransformed beams,” Opt. Commun. 83, 123–135 (1991).
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Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.

Q. Zhang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Degeneration effects in laser cavities,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 293–298 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2005), Chaps. 8 and 12.

Woerdemann, M.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

J. Dingjan, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Geometric modes in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 188, 345–351 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M. M.

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Degeneration effects in laser cavities,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 293–298 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Zhang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Degeneration effects in laser cavities,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 293–298 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Y. F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4–Cr4+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched lasers including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 41–44 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1025–1031 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

J. Dong, S. C. Bai, S. H. Liu, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. He, M. M. Zhang, J. Dong, and K. I. Ueda, “Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince–Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations,” J. Opt. 18, 055205 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Dong, Y. He, S. C. Bai, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 26, 095004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12, 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. G. Abramochkin and V. G. Volostnikov, “Beam transformations and nontransformed beams,” Opt. Commun. 83, 123–135 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Dingjan, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Geometric modes in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Commun. 188, 345–351 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Laabs and B. Ozygus, “Excitation of Hermite–Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers via off-axis pumping,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 213–214 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. F. Chen, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Lan, and K. F. Huang, “Wave representation of geometrical laser beam trajectories in a hemiconfocal cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 053807 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, J. C. Tung, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, and K. F. Huang, “Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray–wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143603 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. G. Shvedov, A. V. Rode, Y. V. Izdebskaya, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant optical manipulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 118103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Erhard, H. Laabs, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Diode-pumped multipath laser oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 3611, 2–10 (1999).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Malyutin, “Closed laser-beam trajectories in plano-spherical resonators with Gaussian apertures,” Quantum Electron. 38, 181–186 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2005), Chaps. 8 and 12.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Laser ablation using a nanosecond optical vortex pulse,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on CLEO/Europe-EQEC (IEEE, 2009), paper CC1.5 THU.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of the concave-flat cavity for implementing the off-axis pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched lasers in a degenerate resonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wave patterns |ΨmoM(x,y,z;ϕo)| inside the cavity for the cases of (a) ϕo=0 and (b) ϕo=π/10 with mo=30 and M=5. Right-hand side: transverse patterns of the emitted beams at z=2L.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical results for the wave patterns |Ψ˜moM(+)(r,ϕ,z;ϕo)| with a fixed M=2 for three cases of mo=5, 10, and 15. Second row: numerical results for the phase structures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Average output power versus incident pump power for lasing modes excited at Δy=0.48, 0.55, and 0.97 mm. (b) Dependence of the lasing mode on the pump power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Pulse repetition rate versus incident pump power for lasing modes shown in Fig. 4(a). (b) A typical oscilloscope trace.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental results (first row), numerical calculations (second row), and numerical phase structures (third row) for the patterns of the converted beams at z=2L for the lasing modes shown in Fig. 4(b) at a pump power of 3.8 W.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ln(1To2)ln(1To2)+ln(1Roc)+ΓσgsσAAs3γ1β,
Ψn,m,s(HG)(x,y,z)=2/Lϕn,m(HG)(x,y,z)×sin[kn,m,sz˜(m+n+1)θG(z)],
ϕn,m(HG)(x,y,z)=12m+n1πm!n!1w(z)×Hn(2xw(z))Hm(2yw(z))exp[x2+y2w(z)2],
ΨmoM(x,y,z;ϕo)=12M/2K=0MM!K!(MK)!×eiKϕoΨ0,mo+QK,s0PK(HG)(x,y,z),
Ψ˜moM(±)(r,ϕ,z;ϕo)=eikz˜12M/2K=0MM!K!(MK)!eiKϕoϕ0,mo+QK(±)(r,ϕ,z)ei(mo+QK)θG(z),
ϕp,l(±)(r,ϕ,z)=2p!π(p+|l|)!1w(z)[2rw(z)]|l|×Lp|l|(2r2w(z)2)exp[r2w(z)2]exp(±ilϕ),
ΘmoM(±)(x,y)=tan1[Im(Ψ˜moM(±))/Re(Ψ˜moM(±))].