Abstract

Mode- and polarization-division multiplexing offer new dimensions to increase the transmission capacity of optical communications. Selective switches are key components in reconfigurable optical network nodes. An on-chip silicon 2×2 mode- and polarization-selective switch that can route four data channels on two modes and two polarizations simultaneously is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The overall insertion losses are lower than 8.6 dB. To reduce the inter-modal crosstalk, polarization beam splitters are added to filter the undesired polarizations or modes. The measured inter-modal and intra-modal crosstalk values are below 23.2 and 22.8  dB for all the channels, respectively.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (2)

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, M. Tang, K. Oh, Z. Feng, C. Zhao, R. Liao, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Polarization-maintaining few mode fiber composed of a central circular-hole and an elliptical-ring core,” Photon. Res. 5, 261–266 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wu, X. Jiang, R. Liu, C. Qiu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “High-extinction-ratio silicon polarization beam splitter with tolerance to waveguide width and coupling length variations,” Opt. Express 24, 6586–6593 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Melati, A. Alippi, and A. Melloni, “Reconfigurable photonic integrated mode (de)multiplexer for SDM fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 24, 12625–12634 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (8)

L. Thylén and L. Wosinski, “Integrated photonics in the 21st century,” Photon. Res. 2, 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22, 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, “A 60  Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with <0.7  dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22, 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J.-H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22, 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. M. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, “Ultra-low-loss CMOS-compatible waveguide crossing arrays based on multimode Bloch waves and imaginary coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39, 335–338 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2009 (1)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Alippi, A.

Amberg, P.

Arakawa, Y.

Asif, R.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bickham, S.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

Burrows, E.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Cai, X.-L.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Caverley, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Chang, E.

Chen, C. P.

Chen, D.-X.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, P.

Chen, S.

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22, 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Chu, T.

Cui, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

D. Dai and M. Mao, “Mode converter based on an inverse taper for multimode silicon nanophotonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 23, 28376–28388 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22, 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de)multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, “Silicon polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetrical evanescent coupling system with three optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3281–3287 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexing switch for on-chip optical interconnects,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThE2-4.

D. Dai and S. Wang, “Silicon-based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid MDM-WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.1.

Dalgaard, K.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Delbue, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Deng, Q.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21, 10376–10382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, J.-J.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, J. B.

Dupuis, N.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Feng, Z.

Fini, J.

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Fu, D.-Z.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galili, M.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Gross, S.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grote, R. R.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Guillén-Torres, M. Á.

He, S.

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wu, X. Jiang, R. Liu, C. Qiu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “High-extinction-ratio silicon polarization beam splitter with tolerance to waveguide width and coupling length variations,” Opt. Express 24, 6586–6593 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Ho, R.

Hu, R.

Huang, B.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ip, E.

Ishida, S.

Izutsu, M.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jayatilleka, H.

Jensen, R. V.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Jiang, X.

Jorge, F.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

Kamchevska, V.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kanno, A.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Kawanishi, T.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Kodama, Y.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Konczykowska, A.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, J.-H.

Lexau, J.

Li, F.-L.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, M.-J.

Li, X.

Liao, R.

Lin, S.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Lipson, M.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2, 530–535 (2015).
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L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, F.

Liu, R.

Liu, Y.

Lu, C.

Lu, M.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Man Chung, K.

Mao, M.

Mateo, E.

Melati, D.

Melloni, A.

Montero, C.

Montoliu, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Moreno, V.

Morioka, T.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
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Murray, K.

Nakajima, H.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Nelson, L.

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
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Oh, K.

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
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Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
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Peng, G.-D.

Petermann, K.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “Compact fiber grating coupler on SOI for coupling of higher order fiber modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2013), paper OTh1B.2.

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
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Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1216–1238 (2009).
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Popovic, M. A.

Prieto, X.

Pupalaikis, P.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Qiu, C.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wu, X. Jiang, R. Liu, C. Qiu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “High-extinction-ratio silicon polarization beam splitter with tolerance to waveguide width and coupling length variations,” Opt. Express 24, 6586–6593 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Raj, K.

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Richardson, D.

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
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Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Shainline, J. M.

Shekhar, S.

Shi, Y.

Shubin, I.

Shum, P. P.

Soref, R.

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Soref, R. A.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
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Souhan, B.

Stamatiadis, C.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “Compact fiber grating coupler on SOI for coupling of higher order fiber modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2013), paper OTh1B.2.

Stein, A.

Stern, B.

Su, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wu, X. Jiang, R. Liu, C. Qiu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “High-extinction-ratio silicon polarization beam splitter with tolerance to waveguide width and coupling length variations,” Opt. Express 24, 6586–6593 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Sun, Y.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Sureka, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Tam, H.-Y.

Tang, M.

Ten, S.

Thacker, H.

Thylén, L.

Tremblay, C.

Tsang, H.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexing switch for on-chip optical interconnects,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThE2-4.

Tse, V.

Tzuang, L. D.

Wang, J.

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
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J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18–L22 (2014).
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J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22, 12799–12807 (2014).
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D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de)multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1422–1424 (2013).
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Wang, S.

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
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D. Dai and S. Wang, “Silicon-based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid MDM-WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.1.

Wang, T.

Winzer, P.

P. Winzer, A. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J.-Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.B.7.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
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Withford, M. J.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
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Wohlfeil, B.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “Compact fiber grating coupler on SOI for coupling of higher order fiber modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2013), paper OTh1B.2.

Wosinski, L.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexing switch for on-chip optical interconnects,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThE2-4.

Xie, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.1.

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, K.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. Tsang, “Mode division multiplexing switch for on-chip optical interconnects,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThE2-4.

Yamada, H.

Yamaguchi, Y.

Y. Kodama, Y. Yamaguchi, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, and H. Nakajima, “Mode-division multiplexing LiNbO3 modulator using directional coupler,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (2016), paper ThD3-5.

Yaman, F.

Yang, J.

Yao, J.

Ye, F.

Y. Ding, V. Kamchevska, K. Dalgaard, F. Ye, R. Asif, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, M. Galili, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Reconfigurable SDM switching using novel silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39058 (2016).
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Yin, B.

Zeng, X.

Zhang, P.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-L.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wu, X. Jiang, R. Liu, C. Qiu, X. Jiang, J. Yang, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “High-extinction-ratio silicon polarization beam splitter with tolerance to waveguide width and coupling length variations,” Opt. Express 24, 6586–6593 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, J.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, H.-L.

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
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Zhou, Z.

Zhu, Q.

Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. He, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon 1 × 2 mode- and polarization-selective switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4E.2.

Zhu, X.

Zimmermann, L.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “Compact fiber grating coupler on SOI for coupling of higher order fiber modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (2013), paper OTh1B.2.

APL Photon. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. He, X. Jiang, B. Liu, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. A. Soref, “Ultra-compact and highly efficient silicon polarization splitter and rotator,” APL Photon. 1, 091304 (2016).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, and S. He, “Monolithically integrated 64-channel silicon hybrid demultiplexer enabling simultaneous wavelength- and mode-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 339–344 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

H.-L. Zhou, D.-Z. Fu, J.-J. Dong, P. Zhang, D.-X. Chen, X.-L. Cai, F.-L. Li, and X.-L. Zhang, “Orbital angular momentum complex spectrum analyzer for vortex light based on the rotational Doppler effect,” Light Sci. Appl. 6e, e16251 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8, 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

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X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J.-H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22, 12628–12633 (2014).
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J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22, 12799–12807 (2014).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic configuration of the 2×2 MPSS for two modes and two polarizations. As an example, the TE0 and TE1 channels of Input 1 and the TM0 and TM1 channels of Input 2 are routed to Output 1 and other channels are routed to Output 2. The calculated mode patterns of the TE0, TE1, TM0, and TM1 modes are intensity profiles. The intensity profiles of the TM0 and TM1 modes look like second-order TM modes in the normal direction. It is attributed to the small height (220 nm) of the silicon waveguides.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Basic elements of the 2×2 MPSS. (a) A PBS and a mode multiplexer; (b) a waveguide crossing; (c) a 1×2 MMI; (d) an MZI switch.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Microscope photo of a fabricated MPSS chip. (b) Magnified SEM images and microscope photos of a PBS, a mode multiplexer, waveguide crossings, and an MZI switch.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured inter-modal crosstalk performance.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured intra-modal crosstalk performance.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Measured Performance of Building Blocks

Metrics