Abstract

This paper reports a comprehensive analysis of the origin of the electroluminescence (EL) peaks and of the thermal droop in UV-B AlGaN-based LEDs. By carrying out spectral measurements at several temperatures and currents, (i) we extract information on the physical origin of the various spectral bands, and (ii) we develop a novel closed-form model based on the Shockley–Read–Hall theory and on the ABC rate equation that is able to reproduce the experimental data on thermal droop caused by non-radiative recombination through deep levels. In the samples under test, the three EL bands are ascribed to the following processes: band-to-band recombination in the quantum wells (main EL peak), a parasitic intra-bandgap radiative transition in the quantum well barriers, and a second defect-related radiative process in the p-AlGaN superlattice.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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2016 (5)

D. Banerjee, S. Sankaranarayanan, D. Khachariya, M. B. Nadar, S. Ganguly, and D. Saha, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes on naturally survived InGaN/GaN lateral nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 31111 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. V. Osinnykh, T. V. Malin, V. F. Plyusnin, A. S. Suranov, A. M. Gilinsky, and K. S. Zhuravlev, “Characterization of the green band in photoluminescence spectra of heavily doped AlxGa1−xN:Si with the Al content x > 0.5,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FG09 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, R. Butté, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, B. Deveaud, and G. Jacopin, “Carrier-density-dependent recombination dynamics of excitons and electron-hole plasma in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 195411 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Dependence of radiative and nonradiative recombination on carrier density and Al content in thick AlGaN epilayers,” J. Phys. D 49, 145110 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, M. La Grassa, B. Galler, R. Zeisel, M. Goano, S. Dominici, M. Mandurrino, F. Bertazzi, D. Robidas, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Role of defects in the thermal droop of InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 94501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295  nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High-power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. L. Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 94504 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. H. Kim, M. Asadirad, Y.-T. Moon, J. S. Kwak, and J.-H. Ryou, “Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: A comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23, 20340 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Karpov, “ABC-model for interpretation of internal quantum efficiency and its droop in III-nitride LEDs: A review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Hangleiter, Z. Jin, M. Gerhard, D. Kalincev, T. Langer, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, M. Koch, M. Bonn, and D. Turchinovich, “Efficient formation of excitons in a dense electron-hole plasma at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 241305 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Can, S. Okur, M. Monavarian, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, H. Morkoç, A. Teke, and Ü. Özgür, “Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93632U (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Iwata, T. Oto, D. Gachet, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schreiner, J. Martínez-Abaigar, J. Glaab, and M. Jansen, “UV-B induced secondary plant metabolites,” Opt. Photon. 9, 34–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

S. Fan, Z. Qin, C. He, M. Hou, X. Wang, B. Shen, W. Li, W. Wang, D. Mao, P. Jin, J. Yan, and P. Dong, “Optical investigation of strong exciton localization in high Al composition AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Opt. Express 21, 24497 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo Ploch, S. Einfeldt, M. Frentrup, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Investigation of the temperature dependent efficiency droop in UV LEDs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125021 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Hönigsmann, “History of phototherapy in dermatology,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 16–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow luminescence of gallium nitride generated by carbon defect complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. Kamyczek, E. Placzek-Popko, V. Kolkovsky, S. Grzanka, and R. Czernecki, “A deep acceptor defect responsible for the yellow luminescence in GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. A. Hurni, A. R. Arehart, J. Yang, R. C. Myers, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “High current-induced degradation of AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103108 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 2012–2015 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Unified model for the GaN LED efficiency droop,” Proc. SPIE 7939, 793916 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 10–13 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, S. Degroote, M. Leys, M. Germain, and G. Borghs, “Strain effects in GaN epilayers grown on different substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 73522 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and M. S. Shur, “Optical studies of degradation of AlGaN quantum well based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 93113 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Aging of AlGaN quantum well light emitting diode studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181914 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, and S. J. Pearton, “Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 73706 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, and R. Gaska, “Carrier lifetimes in AlGaN quantum wells: Electric field and excitonic effects,” J. Phys. D 41, 155116 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. O. Usov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, V. V. Lundin, A. V. Sakharov, E. E. Zavarin, M. A. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Energy characteristics of excitons in structures based on InGaN alloys,” Semiconductors 42, 720–725 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, A. Ishibashi, Y. Kawaguchi, and T. Yokogawa, “Temperature dependence of localized exciton transitions in AlGaN ternary alloy epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053514 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

X.-B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and L. Bergman, “Dynamics of GaN band edge photoluminescence at near-room-temperature regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 46105 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 62103 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, and T. E. Stecher, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence of AlGaN-based UV LEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 329–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Endruweit, M. S. Johnson, and A. C. Long, “Curing of composite components by ultraviolet radiation: A review,” Polym. Compos. 27, 119–128 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III-Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163–2165 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. P. Paskov, T. Paskova, P. O. Holtz, and B. Monemar, “Polarized photoluminescence study of free and bound excitons in free-standing GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 35210 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. D. Auret, W. E. Meyer, L. Wu, M. Hayes, M. J. Legodi, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Electrical characterisation of hole traps in n-type GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2271–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, L. B. Rowland, C. H. Yan, and H. Liu, “Temperature-dependent emission intensity and energy shift in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614–3616 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “AlGaN and InAlGaN alloys—epitaxial growth, optical and electrical properties, and applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 10, 271–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. Martinez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5627–5631 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. B. Soh, D. Z. Chi, A. Ramam, H. F. Lim, and S. J. Chua, “Study of electrically active defects in n-GaN layer,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 4, 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Grandjean, J. Massies, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “GaN/AlGaN quantum wells for UV emission: Heteroepitaxy versus homoepitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 358–361 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. A. Goodman, F. D. Auret, F. K. Koschnick, J. M. Spaeth, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Radiation induced defects in MOVPE grown n-GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 71, 100–103 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. S. Colton, P. Y. Yu, K. L. Teo, P. Perlin, E. R. Weber, I. Grzegory, and K. Uchida, “Selective excitation of the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Physica B 273–274, 75–79 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Sota, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Exciton localization in InGaN quantum well devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 2204 (1998).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3451–3455 (1971).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aleksiejunas, R.

Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Dependence of radiative and nonradiative recombination on carrier density and Al content in thick AlGaN epilayers,” J. Phys. D 49, 145110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

G. Martinez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5627–5631 (2001).
[Crossref]

Arehart, A. R.

Z. Zhang, C. A. Hurni, A. R. Arehart, J. Yang, R. C. Myers, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asadirad, M.

Asif Khan, M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III-Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Auret, F. D.

F. D. Auret, W. E. Meyer, L. Wu, M. Hayes, M. J. Legodi, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Electrical characterisation of hole traps in n-type GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2271–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Goodman, F. D. Auret, F. K. Koschnick, J. M. Spaeth, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Radiation induced defects in MOVPE grown n-GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 71, 100–103 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

N. Can, S. Okur, M. Monavarian, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, H. Morkoç, A. Teke, and Ü. Özgür, “Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93632U (2015).
[Crossref]

Banal, R. G.

Y. Iwata, T. Oto, D. Gachet, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee, S. Sankaranarayanan, D. Khachariya, M. B. Nadar, S. Ganguly, and D. Saha, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes on naturally survived InGaN/GaN lateral nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 31111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beaumont, B.

F. D. Auret, W. E. Meyer, L. Wu, M. Hayes, M. J. Legodi, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Electrical characterisation of hole traps in n-type GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2271–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Goodman, F. D. Auret, F. K. Koschnick, J. M. Spaeth, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Radiation induced defects in MOVPE grown n-GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 71, 100–103 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bergman, L.

X.-B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and L. Bergman, “Dynamics of GaN band edge photoluminescence at near-room-temperature regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 46105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, M. La Grassa, B. Galler, R. Zeisel, M. Goano, S. Dominici, M. Mandurrino, F. Bertazzi, D. Robidas, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Role of defects in the thermal droop of InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 94501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bertram, F.

G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Aging of AlGaN quantum well light emitting diode studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181914 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3451–3455 (1971).
[Crossref]

Binder, M.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonn, M.

A. Hangleiter, Z. Jin, M. Gerhard, D. Kalincev, T. Langer, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, M. Koch, M. Bonn, and D. Turchinovich, “Efficient formation of excitons in a dense electron-hole plasma at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 241305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, S. Degroote, M. Leys, M. Germain, and G. Borghs, “Strain effects in GaN epilayers grown on different substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 73522 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brault, J.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bremers, H.

A. Hangleiter, Z. Jin, M. Gerhard, D. Kalincev, T. Langer, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, M. Koch, M. Bonn, and D. Turchinovich, “Efficient formation of excitons in a dense electron-hole plasma at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 241305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bretagnon, T.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Butté, R.

W. Liu, R. Butté, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, B. Deveaud, and G. Jacopin, “Carrier-density-dependent recombination dynamics of excitons and electron-hole plasma in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 195411 (2016).
[Crossref]

Can, N.

N. Can, S. Okur, M. Monavarian, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, H. Morkoç, A. Teke, and Ü. Özgür, “Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93632U (2015).
[Crossref]

Cantarero, A.

G. Martinez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5627–5631 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, and T. E. Stecher, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence of AlGaN-based UV LEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 329–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, L. B. Rowland, C. H. Yan, and H. Liu, “Temperature-dependent emission intensity and energy shift in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614–3616 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-B.

X.-B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and L. Bergman, “Dynamics of GaN band edge photoluminescence at near-room-temperature regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 46105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, S. Degroote, M. Leys, M. Germain, and G. Borghs, “Strain effects in GaN epilayers grown on different substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 73522 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chenot, S.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, D. Z.

C. B. Soh, D. Z. Chi, A. Ramam, H. F. Lim, and S. J. Chua, “Study of electrically active defects in n-GaN layer,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 4, 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Sota, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Exciton localization in InGaN quantum well devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 2204 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chitnis, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 2012–2015 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chow, P. P.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, and S. J. Pearton, “Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 73706 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

C. B. Soh, D. Z. Chi, A. Ramam, H. F. Lim, and S. J. Chua, “Study of electrically active defects in n-GaN layer,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 4, 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Colton, J. S.

J. S. Colton, P. Y. Yu, K. L. Teo, P. Perlin, E. R. Weber, I. Grzegory, and K. Uchida, “Selective excitation of the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Physica B 273–274, 75–79 (1999).
[Crossref]

Courville, A.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cros, A.

G. Martinez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5627–5631 (2001).
[Crossref]

Czernecki, R.

P. Kamyczek, E. Placzek-Popko, V. Kolkovsky, S. Grzanka, and R. Czernecki, “A deep acceptor defect responsible for the yellow luminescence in GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dabiran, A. M.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, and S. J. Pearton, “Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 73706 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 2012–2015 (2011).
[Crossref]

Damilano, B.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Mierry, P.

J. Brault, D. Rosales, B. Damilano, M. Leroux, A. Courville, M. Korytov, S. Chenot, P. Vennéguès, B. Vinter, P. De Mierry, A. Kahouli, J. Massies, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Polar and semipolar GaN/Al0.5Ga0.5N nanostructures for UV light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 84001 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Santi, C.

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, M. La Grassa, B. Galler, R. Zeisel, M. Goano, S. Dominici, M. Mandurrino, F. Bertazzi, D. Robidas, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Role of defects in the thermal droop of InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 94501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Degroote, S.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, S. Degroote, M. Leys, M. Germain, and G. Borghs, “Strain effects in GaN epilayers grown on different substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 73522 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demchenko, D. O.

D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow luminescence of gallium nitride generated by carbon defect complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221106 (2010).
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I. V. Osinnykh, T. V. Malin, V. F. Plyusnin, A. S. Suranov, A. M. Gilinsky, and K. S. Zhuravlev, “Characterization of the green band in photoluminescence spectra of heavily doped AlxGa1−xN:Si with the Al content x > 0.5,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FG09 (2016).
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T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 10–13 (2010).
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M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
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H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, A. Ishibashi, Y. Kawaguchi, and T. Yokogawa, “Temperature dependence of localized exciton transitions in AlGaN ternary alloy epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053514 (2008).
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X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, L. B. Rowland, C. H. Yan, and H. Liu, “Temperature-dependent emission intensity and energy shift in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614–3616 (2003).
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Yan, J.

Yan, Q.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
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Yang, J.

Ž. Podlipskas, R. Aleksiejūnas, A. Kadys, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Dependence of radiative and nonradiative recombination on carrier density and Al content in thick AlGaN epilayers,” J. Phys. D 49, 145110 (2016).
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Z. Zhang, C. A. Hurni, A. R. Arehart, J. Yang, R. C. Myers, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 1–5 (2012).
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A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and M. S. Shur, “Optical studies of degradation of AlGaN quantum well based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 93113 (2010).
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A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Aging of AlGaN quantum well light emitting diode studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181914 (2009).
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A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, and R. Gaska, “Carrier lifetimes in AlGaN quantum wells: Electric field and excitonic effects,” J. Phys. D 41, 155116 (2008).
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M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
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H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, A. Ishibashi, Y. Kawaguchi, and T. Yokogawa, “Temperature dependence of localized exciton transitions in AlGaN ternary alloy epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053514 (2008).
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J. S. Colton, P. Y. Yu, K. L. Teo, P. Perlin, E. R. Weber, I. Grzegory, and K. Uchida, “Selective excitation of the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Physica B 273–274, 75–79 (1999).
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S. O. Usov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, V. V. Lundin, A. V. Sakharov, E. E. Zavarin, M. A. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Energy characteristics of excitons in structures based on InGaN alloys,” Semiconductors 42, 720–725 (2008).
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Zeimer, U.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, M. La Grassa, B. Galler, R. Zeisel, M. Goano, S. Dominici, M. Mandurrino, F. Bertazzi, D. Robidas, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Role of defects in the thermal droop of InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 94501 (2016).
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N. Can, S. Okur, M. Monavarian, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, H. Morkoç, A. Teke, and Ü. Özgür, “Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93632U (2015).
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J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
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Zhang, J. P.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
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Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, S. Degroote, M. Leys, M. Germain, and G. Borghs, “Strain effects in GaN epilayers grown on different substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 73522 (2010).
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Z. Zhang, C. A. Hurni, A. R. Arehart, J. Yang, R. C. Myers, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 1–5 (2012).
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Zhuravlev, K. S.

I. V. Osinnykh, T. V. Malin, V. F. Plyusnin, A. S. Suranov, A. M. Gilinsky, and K. S. Zhuravlev, “Characterization of the green band in photoluminescence spectra of heavily doped AlxGa1−xN:Si with the Al content x > 0.5,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FG09 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, A. Chitnis, R. Pachipulusu, V. Mandavilli, M. Shatalov, J. P. Zhang, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “AlGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3666–3668 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, Y. Bilenko, M. Shatalov, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Aging of AlGaN quantum well light emitting diode studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181914 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 10–13 (2010).
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G. Steude, B. K. Meyer, A. Göldner, A. Hoffmann, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical investigations of AlGaN on GaN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2456–2458 (1999).
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N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 62103 (2006).
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Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, “Junction-temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163–2165 (2004).
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D. Banerjee, S. Sankaranarayanan, D. Khachariya, M. B. Nadar, S. Ganguly, and D. Saha, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes on naturally survived InGaN/GaN lateral nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 31111 (2016).
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X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, L. B. Rowland, C. H. Yan, and H. Liu, “Temperature-dependent emission intensity and energy shift in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614–3616 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 2012–2015 (2011).
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A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221106 (2010).
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Z. Zhang, C. A. Hurni, A. R. Arehart, J. Yang, R. C. Myers, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, “Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167–169 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456–3458 (2003).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, and T. E. Stecher, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence of AlGaN-based UV LEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 329–331 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (12)

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295  nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Glaab, C. Ploch, R. Kelz, C. Stölmacker, M. Lapeyrade, N. L. Ploch, J. Rass, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Degradation of (InAlGa)N-based UV-B light emitting diodes stressed by current and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 94504 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and M. S. Shur, “Optical studies of degradation of AlGaN quantum well based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 93113 (2010).
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A. Pinos, S. Marcinkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “High current-induced degradation of AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103108 (2011).
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C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, M. La Grassa, B. Galler, R. Zeisel, M. Goano, S. Dominici, M. Mandurrino, F. Bertazzi, D. Robidas, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Role of defects in the thermal droop of InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 94501 (2016).
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G. Martinez-Criado, C. R. Miskys, A. Cros, O. Ambacher, A. Cantarero, and M. Stutzmann, “Photoluminescence study of excitons in homoepitaxial GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5627–5631 (2001).
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X.-B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and L. Bergman, “Dynamics of GaN band edge photoluminescence at near-room-temperature regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 46105 (2006).
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H. Murotani, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, A. Ishibashi, Y. Kawaguchi, and T. Yokogawa, “Temperature dependence of localized exciton transitions in AlGaN ternary alloy epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 053514 (2008).
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Y. Iwata, T. Oto, D. Gachet, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 115702 (2015).
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A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, and S. J. Pearton, “Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 73706 (2009).
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J. Phys. D (2)

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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

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[Crossref]

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I. V. Osinnykh, T. V. Malin, V. F. Plyusnin, A. S. Suranov, A. M. Gilinsky, and K. S. Zhuravlev, “Characterization of the green band in photoluminescence spectra of heavily doped AlxGa1−xN:Si with the Al content x > 0.5,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FG09 (2016).
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M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III-Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

S. A. Goodman, F. D. Auret, F. K. Koschnick, J. M. Spaeth, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Radiation induced defects in MOVPE grown n-GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 71, 100–103 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

C. B. Soh, D. Z. Chi, A. Ramam, H. F. Lim, and S. J. Chua, “Study of electrically active defects in n-GaN layer,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 4, 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, D. Steiauf, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 15, 125006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Photon. (1)

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Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

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D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3451–3455 (1971).
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W. Liu, R. Butté, A. Dussaigne, N. Grandjean, B. Deveaud, and G. Jacopin, “Carrier-density-dependent recombination dynamics of excitons and electron-hole plasma in m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 195411 (2016).
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N. Can, S. Okur, M. Monavarian, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, H. Morkoç, A. Teke, and Ü. Özgür, “Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93632U (2015).
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N. Grandjean, J. Massies, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “GaN/AlGaN quantum wells for UV emission: Heteroepitaxy versus homoepitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 358–361 (2001).
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M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28, 125015 (2013).
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Semiconductors (1)

S. O. Usov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, V. V. Lundin, A. V. Sakharov, E. E. Zavarin, M. A. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Energy characteristics of excitons in structures based on InGaN alloys,” Semiconductors 42, 720–725 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

See, for instance, Sensor Electronic Technology Inc., “Technical Data Sheet,” .

Simulations are based on the software package SiLENSe 5.2.1, STR Group, Ltd.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Spectral distribution of the EL at various temperatures and a current of 1 mA. The four main emission peaks are labeled in the figure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Intensity of the QW emission for different temperatures and currents.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Arrhenius plot of the intensity of the QW emission and fit according to Eq. (1).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Temperature dependence of the peak wavelength of the QW emission. Inset: bandgap narrowing with increasing temperature in accordance with Varshni’s law.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Intensity of the QW emission for different temperatures and currents fitted by Eqs. (3), (7), and (9).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Numerical simulation of the band diagram and of electron and hole concentration at 140 and 300 K at a current of 10 mA.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Arrhenius plot of the peak 3 intensity for different currents fitted by the complete SRH model [Eqs. (3), (7), and (9)].
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Arrhenius plot of the peak 4 intensity for different currents fitted by the complete SRH model [Eq. (7)].
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Intensity of the QW emission at different temperatures fitted by the complete SRH model [Eq. (7)] and the approximated model [Eq. (A3)], respectively.

Equations (12)

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L=L01+Aexp(Ea/kT),
limTL01+Aexp(Ea/kT)=L01+A.
τnr=τ0(1+coshETEFikT),
I=qVR(An+Bn2+Cn3).
ηi=Bn2I/qVR=Bn2An+Bn2+Cn3.
ηi(T2)ηi(T1)=B2n22A2n2+B2n22+C2n23A1n1+B1n12+C2n13B1n12,
ηi(T2)ηi(T1)=n22n12(A1n1+Bn12)(A2n2+Bn22).
A1n1+Bn12=A2n2+Bn22,
n2=A2+A224B(A1n1Bn12)2B,
n1=n2+Δn.
ηi(T2)ηi(T1)=A1n23+A1n22Δn+Bn12n22A2n23+2A2n22Δn+A2n2Δn2+Bn12n22.
ηi(T2)ηi(T1)A1n2+Bn12A2n2+Bn12.

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