Abstract

We present a polarization-maintaining PANDA ring-core fiber (PM-PRCF) characterized by the combination of a ring-core structure with two stress-applying rods. This special fiber design separates the adjacent modes and avoids the cutoff of the higher-order modes, which is a common problem in elliptical core polarization-maintaining few-mode fibers. Using a high-contrast index ring and stress-induced birefringence, the PM-PRCF features support for 10 vector modes, with effective refractive index separations from their adjacent modes >104. Broadband performance is investigated subsequently over a wide wavelength range from 1500 to 1630 nm. The proposed fiber is targeted at applications in space-division multiplexing while eliminating the complex multiple-input multiple-output signal processing.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Polarization-maintaining few mode fiber composed of a central circular-hole and an elliptical-ring core

Jiajia Zhao, Ming Tang, Kyunghwan Oh, Zhenhua Feng, Can Zhao, Ruolin Liao, Songnian Fu, Perry Ping Shum, and Deming Liu
Photon. Res. 5(3) 261-266 (2017)

Fully degeneracy-lifted bow-tie elliptical ring-core multi-mode fiber

Shi Chen and Jian Wang
Opt. Express 26(14) 18773-18782 (2018)

Polarization-maintaining fiber composed of an elliptical ring core and two circular air holes

Xiaoqiang Zhang, Yong Jiang, Yong Xu, Ruishan Chen, Anting Wang, Hai Ming, and Weisheng Zhao
Appl. Opt. 58(32) 8865-8870 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23, 3075–3087 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 13250–13257 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10  GbE traffic using commercial SFP+ transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 17120–17126 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.
  6. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96  km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. O. Arik, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1841–1852 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Wang and S. LaRochelle, “Design of eight-mode polarization maintaining few-mode fiber for multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5846–5849 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. H. Kim and K. Y. Song, “Mapping of intermodal beat length distribution in an elliptical-core two-mode fiber based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” Opt. Express 22, 17292–17302 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4, B14–B28 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).
  15. J. Liu, S. Li, J. Du, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an integrated optical vortex emitter to 3.6-km few-mode fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1969–1972 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Conservation of orbital angular momentum in air-core optical fibers,” Optica 2, 267–270 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Yin, S. Feng, Z. Liu, Y. Bai, and S. Jian, “Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter,” Opt. Express 22, 22528–22533 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4486–4493 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1911–1920 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. Lagakos, J. A. Bucaro, and R. Hughes, “Acoustic sensitivity predictions of single-mode optical fibers using Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3668–3670 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2525–2527 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, and W. Haase, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40  Gb/s with various optical equalizers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1602–1616 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117–26127 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Li, G. Ren, Y. Lian, B. Zhu, M. Tang, Y. Zhao, and S. Jian, “Broadband orbital angular momentum transmission using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3591–3594 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Cai, M. Lan, S. Yu, and W. Gu, “Mode converter based on dual-core all-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Photon. Res. 3, 220–223 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Song, K. Sun, S. Li, and W. Cai, “Phase sensitivity to temperature of the guiding mode in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 54, 7330–7334 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. Dong, L. Teng, P. Tong, T. Jiang, H. Zhang, T. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Bao, and Z. Lu, “High-sensitivity distributed transverse load sensor with an elliptical-core fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5003–5006 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (7)

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1980 (2)

N. Lagakos, J. A. Bucaro, and R. Hughes, “Acoustic sensitivity predictions of single-mode optical fibers using Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3668–3670 (1980).
[Crossref]

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Arik, S. O.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Askarov, D.

Astruc, M.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Bai, N.

Bai, Y.

Bao, X.

Bock, W. J.

Boivin, D.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Bolle, C.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brunet, C.

Bucaro, J. A.

Burrows, E. C.

Cai, S.

Cai, W.

Cai, X.

Chen, L.

Cvijetic, N.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Du, C.

Du, J.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

Feng, S.

Fini, J.

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, G.

Fleming, J. W.

Gan, Z.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gottwald, E.

Gregg, P.

Gu, W.

Guan, R.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gungener, C.

Haase, W.

Hinz, S.

Huang, D.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, R.

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

Jaeger, R. E.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Jian, S.

Jiang, T.

Kahn, J. M.

Kanonakis, K.

Kim, Y. H.

Klitis, C.

Kristensen, P.

Lagakos, N.

Lan, M.

LaRochelle, S.

Li, G.

Li, H.

Li, M. J.

Li, S.

Lian, Y.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Love, J. D.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Maerten, H.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Martynkien, T.

McCurdy, A. H.

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

Milione, G.

Mirvoda, V.

Mo, Q.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mumtaz, S.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noe, R.

Peckham, D. W.

Peng, G.

Pinnow, D. A.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

Prieto, X.

Provost, L.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Ramachandran, S.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Conservation of orbital angular momentum in air-core optical fibers,” Optica 2, 267–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2525–2527 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

Ren, G.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rich, T. C.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riesen, N.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rusch, L. A.

Ryf, R.

Sakai, J.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sandel, D.

Scheerer, C.

Schopflin, A.

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Song, J.

Song, K. Y.

Sorel, M.

Stone, J.

Sun, K.

Tang, M.

Teng, L.

Tong, P.

Tsuchiya, H.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urbanczyk, W.

Vaity, P.

Van Uitert, L. G.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

Weyrauch, T.

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746–1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Yaman, F.

Yan, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yin, B.

Yoshida-Dierolf, M.

Yoshizawa, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, F.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 240–254 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4, 3853 (2014).

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” in European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the PM-PRCF cross section.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Colormap of minimal Δ n eff between adjacent modes as a function of ρ and V at 1550 nm for W = 125 μm , a = 1 μm , r 3 = 20 μm .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Intensity distributions and electrical field orientations for the 10 eigenmodes (a) without the two stress-applying rods, (b) with the two stress-applying rods.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Effective refractive index n eff and effective refractive index difference Δ n eff as a function of a .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Effective index difference Δ n eff as a function of r 3 .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Chromatic dispersions for the 10 modes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Elastic Parameters Used for Modeling

Tables Icon

Table 2. Effective Refractive Index ( n eff ), Effective Refractive Index Difference ( Δ n eff ) Between Adjacent Modes, and Chromatic Dispersion ( D ) at 1550 nm for a = 1 μm , r 3 = 20 μm , V = 4.51 , and ρ = 0.57

Metrics