Abstract

We present an inexpensive technique to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) millimeter wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) image using upconversion. In this work we describe and demonstrate a method for upconversion of MMW/THz radiation to the visual band using a very inexpensive miniature glow discharge detector (GDD) and a silicon photodetector. We present MMW/THz upconversion images based on measuring the visual light emitting from the GDD rather than its electrical current. The results show better response time and better sensitivity compared to the electronic detection performed previously. Furthermore, in this work we perform frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar detection based on this method using a GDD lamp, with a photodetector to measure GDD light emission. By using FMCW detection, the range in addition to the intensity at each pixel can be obtained, thus yielding the 3D image. The GDD acts as a heterodyne mixer not only electronically but also optically. The suggested 3D upconversion technique using the GDD is simple and inexpensive and has better performance compared to other MMW/THz imaging systems suggested in the literature. This method provides minimum detectable signal power that is about 6 orders of magnitude better than similar plasma systems due to the very large internal signal gain deriving from the much smaller electrode separation and resulting in much higher plasma electric field.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  1. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346–404 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. S. Kopeika, “Glow discharge detection of long wavelength electromagnetic radiation: cascade ionization process internal signal gain and temporal and spectral response properties,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-6, 139–157 (1978).
  13. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
  14. N. S. Kopeika, “On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 63, 981–982 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. S. Kopeika and N. H. Farhat, “Video detection of millimeter waves with glow discharge tubes: part I—physical description; part II—experimental results,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 534–548 (1975).
  20. A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).
  21. K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Skolnik, Radar Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1964), Chap. 1–3, pp. 15–64.
  24. A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

2013 (4)

K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346–404 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

N. S. Kopeika, “Glow discharge detection of long wavelength electromagnetic radiation: cascade ionization process internal signal gain and temporal and spectral response properties,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-6, 139–157 (1978).

1975 (2)

N. S. Kopeika, “On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 63, 981–982 (1975).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kopeika and N. H. Farhat, “Video detection of millimeter waves with glow discharge tubes: part I—physical description; part II—experimental results,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 534–548 (1975).

Abramovich, A.

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aharon (Akram), A.

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alasgarzade, N.

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altan, H.

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banay, N.

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

Belenky, A.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bozaci, H. M.

K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cinar, K.

K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Farber, E.

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Farhat, N. H.

N. S. Kopeika and N. H. Farhat, “Video detection of millimeter waves with glow discharge tubes: part I—physical description; part II—experimental results,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 534–548 (1975).

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gitlin, M. S.

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Golovanov, V. V.

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hou, L.

L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Joseph, H.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kopeika, N. S.

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kopeika, “Glow discharge detection of long wavelength electromagnetic radiation: cascade ionization process internal signal gain and temporal and spectral response properties,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-6, 139–157 (1978).

N. S. Kopeika, “On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 63, 981–982 (1975).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kopeika and N. H. Farhat, “Video detection of millimeter waves with glow discharge tubes: part I—physical description; part II—experimental results,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 534–548 (1975).

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Levanon, A.

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346–404 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rozban, D.

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “Heterodyne detection at 300  GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4077–4082 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7207–7211 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sahin, A. B.

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shilemay, M.

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sizov, F.

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346–404 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skolnik, M.

M. Skolnik, Radar Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1964), Chap. 1–3, pp. 15–64.

Spivakov, A. G.

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takan, T.

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsvetkov, A. I.

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uzun-Kaymak, I. U.

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, D.

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yadid-Pecht, O.

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yitzhaky, Y.

M. Shilemay, D. Rozban, A. Levanon, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, O. Yadid-Pecht, and A. Abramovich, “Performance quantification of a millimeter-wavelength imaging system based on inexpensive glow-discharge-detector focal-plane array,” Appl. Opt. 52, C43–C49 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zelenogorskiy, V. V.

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “Design of inexpensive diffraction limited focal plane arrays for mm wavelength and THz radiation using glow discharge detector pixels,” Appl. Phys. 104, 033302 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, D. Rozban, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of in expensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Ji, W. Ding, S. Yang, Q. Chen, and D. Xing, “Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

L. Hou and W. Shi, “Fast terahertz continuous-wave detector based on weakly ionized plasma,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1583–1585 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (5)

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Levanon, A. Abramovich, and N. S. Kopeika, “Switching and fast operation of glow discharge detector for millimeter wave focal plane array imaging systems,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 6659–6663 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and D. Rozban, “THz polarization effects on detection responsivity of glow discharge detectors (GDD),” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 1181–1184 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Aharon (Akram), A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Aharon (Akram), N. S. Kopeika, and A. Abramovich, “W-band chirp radar mock-up using a glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Cinar, H. M. Bozaci, and H. Altan, “Characterization of a glow discharge detector with terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 2643–2647 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

N. S. Kopeika and N. H. Farhat, “Video detection of millimeter waves with glow discharge tubes: part I—physical description; part II—experimental results,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 534–548 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

N. S. Kopeika, “Glow discharge detection of long wavelength electromagnetic radiation: cascade ionization process internal signal gain and temporal and spectral response properties,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-6, 139–157 (1978).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. S. Gitlin, V. V. Golovanov, A. G. Spivakov, A. I. Tsvetkov, and V. V. Zelenogorskiy, “Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063301 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and E. Farber, “Terahertz detection mechanism of inexpensive sensitive glow discharge detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Takan, N. Alasgarzade, I. U. Uzun-Kaymak, A. B. Sahin, and H. Altan, “Detection of far-infrared radiation using glow discharge detectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opto-Electron. Rev. (2)

A. Rogalski and F. Sizov, “Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 19, 346–404 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (2)

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kopeika, “On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 63, 981–982 (1975).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, N. Banay, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Levanon, “Polarization effects on heterodyne detection and imaging using glow discharge detector at millimeter wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9078, 90780F (2014).

Other (2)

M. Skolnik, Radar Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1964), Chap. 1–3, pp. 15–64.

A. Aharon (Akram), D. Rozban, A. Abramovich, Y. Yitzhaky, and N. S. Kopeika, “Terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave radar using glow discharge detector,” IEEE Sens. J.16 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of the upconversion detection: (a) schematic, (b) picture.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Detected signal from the photodetector (signal A, 76 mV peak to peak) and modulation signal of the MMW/THz radiation (signal B) on the same time axis.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Detected signal from the photodetector (solid line) and the detected signal from the electronic circuit without amplifier (dashed line) as a function of the GDD DC bias current.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Detected signal from the photodetector (signal A) and modulation signal of the MMW/THz radiation (signal B). The response time of the detection using the PDB210A photodetector was found to be 480 ns.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Setup configuration for the upconversion imaging system using a GDD and photodetector.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Pictures of the setup configuration for the upconversion imaging system using a GDD and photodetector, imaging mirror, and metal object with a size of 8  cm×10  cm and letter width of 2 cm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Imaging results: (a) the raw upconverted MMW/THz image, (b) the image after thresholding low values.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Setup configuration for an optical FMCW experiment at 100 GHz using a photodetector and GDD lamp N523 in side configuration, connected to the detection electronic circuit and external amplifier.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Detected signal A and modulation signal B for the FMCW experiment: (a) upconversion optical heterodyne detection, (b) electronic heterodyne detection.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. FFT of the detected signal from the FMCW experiment: (a) upconversion optical heterodyne detection, (b) electronic heterodyne detection.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔI(t)=G·q2·V·nVi·m·(ττi)·η0·PD·(νν2+ω2)·(1etτ),
NEP=VnR·B=Ps_minB,
fb=fSR·Δt=ΔfTs·Rc=>R=fb·Ts·cΔf,
δR=c2Δf,

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