Abstract

We experimentally investigated the nonlinear optical response in few-layer oxidized black phosphorus (OBP) by the femtosecond Z-scan measurement technique, and found that OBP not only possesses strong ultrafast saturable absorption but also a nonlinear self-defocusing effect that is absent in black phosphorus (BP). The saturable absorption property originates mainly from the direct band structure, which is still maintained in OBP. The emergence of self-defocusing might originate from the combined consequences of the oxygen-induced defects in BP. Our experimental findings might constitute the first experimental evidence on how to dynamically tune its nonlinear property, offering an inroad in tailoring its optical properties through chemical modification (oxidation, introducing defects, etc.). The versatile ultrafast nonlinear optical properties (saturable absorption and self-defocusing) imply a significant potential of the layered OBP in the development of unprecedented optoelectronic devices, such as mode lockers, optical switches, laser beam shapers, and wavelength converters.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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Corrections

8 November 2016: A correction was made to the funding section.


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References

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  1. K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10451–10453 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y.-M. Lin, C. Dimitrakopoulos, K. A. Jenkins, D. B. Farmer, H.-Y. Chiu, A. Grill, and P. Avouris, “100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene,” Science 327, 662 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nano 9, 372–377 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
  12. R. Fei and L. Yang, “Strain-engineering the anisotropic electrical conductance of few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 14, 2884–2889 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Kou, T. Frauenheim, and C. Chen, “Phosphorene as a superior gas sensor: selective adsorption and distinct I-V response,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2675–2681 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. W. Boukhvalov, A. N. Rudenko, D. A. Prishchenko, V. G. Mazurenko, and M. I. Katsnelson, “Chemical modifications and stability of phosphorene with impurities: a first principles study,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 15209–15217 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 227–242 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3362–3369 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. O. H. Churchill and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Two-dimensional crystals: phosphorus joins the family,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 330–331 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Oezyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black phosphorus-monolayer MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction p-n diode,” ACS Nano 8, 8292–8299 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14, 6414–6417 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 081408 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3691–3694 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Ozyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Kang, J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, J.-H. Lee, X. Liu, K.-S. Chen, and M. C. Hersam, “Solvent exfoliation of electronic-grade, two-dimensional black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9, 3596–3604 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14, 6964–6970 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. O. Island, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Environmental instability of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 2, 011002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. H. Woomer, T. W. Farnsworth, J. Hu, R. A. Wells, C. L. Donley, and S. C. Warren, “Phosphorene: synthesis, scale-up, and quantitative optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 9, 8869–8884 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  36. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191911 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2015 (10)

D. W. Boukhvalov, A. N. Rudenko, D. A. Prishchenko, V. G. Mazurenko, and M. I. Katsnelson, “Chemical modifications and stability of phosphorene with impurities: a first principles study,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 15209–15217 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Ozyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, J.-H. Lee, X. Liu, K.-S. Chen, and M. C. Hersam, “Solvent exfoliation of electronic-grade, two-dimensional black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9, 3596–3604 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. O. Island, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Environmental instability of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 2, 011002 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. H. Woomer, T. W. Farnsworth, J. Hu, R. A. Wells, C. L. Donley, and S. C. Warren, “Phosphorene: synthesis, scale-up, and quantitative optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 9, 8869–8884 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (14)

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. O. H. Churchill and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Two-dimensional crystals: phosphorus joins the family,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 330–331 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14, 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Oezyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black phosphorus-monolayer MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction p-n diode,” ACS Nano 8, 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14, 6414–6417 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nano 9, 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).

R. Fei and L. Yang, “Strain-engineering the anisotropic electrical conductance of few-layer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 14, 2884–2889 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Kou, T. Frauenheim, and C. Chen, “Phosphorene as a superior gas sensor: selective adsorption and distinct I-V response,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2675–2681 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. Lin, C. Dimitrakopoulos, K. A. Jenkins, D. B. Farmer, H.-Y. Chiu, A. Grill, and P. Avouris, “100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene,” Science 327, 662 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

A. Morita, “Semiconducting black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 227–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black phosphorus-monolayer MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction p-n diode,” ACS Nano 8, 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, J. V.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asahina, H.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic structure of black phosphorus in tight binding approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14, 6414–6417 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. Lin, C. Dimitrakopoulos, K. A. Jenkins, D. B. Farmer, H.-Y. Chiu, A. Grill, and P. Avouris, “100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene,” Science 327, 662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blanter, S. I.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boukhvalov, D. W.

D. W. Boukhvalov, A. N. Rudenko, D. A. Prishchenko, V. G. Mazurenko, and M. I. Katsnelson, “Chemical modifications and stability of phosphorene with impurities: a first principles study,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 15209–15217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization of OBP. (a) TEM image and (b) XPS spectra of OBP. (c) Optical absorbance of an OBP nanosheet from 1 day to 7 days. (d) Representative direct Tauc plots used to determine the band-to-band transition from 1 day to 7 days.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Z-scan measurements of the OBP nanosheet dispersions at different intensities at the 800 nm band. (b) Relation between the incident intensity and normalized transmittance of the OBP sample.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Band structure of (a) bare monolayer phosphorene, (b)  PO 0.125 , (c)  PO 0.25 , and (d)  PO 0.5 .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Z-scan measurements of OBP dispersions and pure water in a cuvette. (a) OA, (b) CA, and (c) CA/OA measurements of OBP nanosheet dispersions; (d) OA and CA measurements of pure water in the cuvette.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Experimental setup of the OBP-SA based EDF laser. (b) Pulse spectra, (c) pulse train, (d) autocorrelation trace, and (e) RF spectrum of the output laser pulses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Linear and Nonlinear Parameters of the OBP Dispersions Excited at the Femtosecond Region

Equations (4)

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α ( I ) = α 0 + α NL I .
T ( z ) = m = 0 ( α NL I 0 L eff ) m ( 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ) m ( m + 1 ) 3 / 2 ,
T normal = ( 1 α s 1 + I / I s α n s ) / T linear ,
T ( x ) = 1 + 4 x Δ Φ ( 1 + x 2 ) ( 9 + x 2 ) + 4 ( 3 x 2 5 ) Δ Φ 2 ( 1 + x 2 ) 2 ( 9 + x 2 ) ( 25 + x 2 ) + 32 ( 3 x 2 11 ) x Δ Φ 3 ( 1 + x 2 ) 3 ( 9 + x 2 ) ( 25 + x 2 ) ( 49 + x 2 ) ,

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