Abstract

In this paper, we propose a ghost imaging scheme with fast Walsh–Hadamard transform, named GIFWHT. In the scheme, Walsh–Hadamard pattern pairs are used to illuminate an object to generate pairs of detection results, and the corresponding differential detection result is used as the result as that from the conventional bucket detector. By performing the fast Walsh–Hadamard transform on 2k (k is a positive integer) differential detection results, the image of the object can be recovered. The experimental and numerical simulation results show that the reconstruction time of GIFWHT is greatly reduced, and the quality of the recovered image is noticeably improved. In addition, GIFWHT is robust against interference from environmental illumination and could save memory.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  1. S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1, 285–289 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. X. Gu and S. M. Zhao, “Nonorthogonal object identification based on ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 238–242 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Li, C. Deng, M. Chen, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging for an axially moving target with an unknown constant speed,” Photon. Res. 3, 153–157 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. A. Geadah and M. J. G. Corinthios, “Natural, dyadic, and sequency order algorithms and processors for the Walsh-Hadamard transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 435–442 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Corinthios, Signals, Systems, Transforms, and Digital Signal Processing with MATLAB (CRC Press, 2009).
  20. W. K. Yu, X. R. Yao, X. F. Liu, L. Z. Li, and G. J. Zhai, “Three-dimensional single-pixel compressive reflectivity imaging based on complementary modulation,” Appl. Opt. 54, 363–367 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Nie, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Ghost telescope imaging system from the perspective of coherent-mode representation,” Opt. Commun. 358, 88–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

W. K. Yu, X. R. Yao, X. F. Liu, L. Z. Li, and G. J. Zhai, “Three-dimensional single-pixel compressive reflectivity imaging based on complementary modulation,” Appl. Opt. 54, 363–367 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, C. Deng, M. Chen, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging for an axially moving target with an unknown constant speed,” Photon. Res. 3, 153–157 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, “High-resolution pseudo-inverse ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 234–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gu and S. M. Zhao, “Nonorthogonal object identification based on ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 238–242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, J. Shi, F. Cao, J. Peng, and G. Zeng, “Computational imaging based on time-correlated single-photon-counting technique at low light level,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9277–9283 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Y. A. Geadah and M. J. G. Corinthios, “Natural, dyadic, and sequency order algorithms and processors for the Walsh-Hadamard transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 435–442 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

L. Nie, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Ghost telescope imaging system from the perspective of coherent-mode representation,” Opt. Commun. 358, 88–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1, 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cao, F.

Y. Yang, J. Shi, F. Cao, J. Peng, and G. Zeng, “Computational imaging based on time-correlated single-photon-counting technique at low light level,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9277–9283 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, P. X.

E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. H.

Cheng, W. W.

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corinthios, M.

M. Corinthios, Signals, Systems, Transforms, and Digital Signal Processing with MATLAB (CRC Press, 2009).

Corinthios, M. J. G.

Y. A. Geadah and M. J. G. Corinthios, “Natural, dyadic, and sequency order algorithms and processors for the Walsh-Hadamard transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 435–442 (1977).
[Crossref]

Deng, C.

Edgar, M. P.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1, 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

L. Nie, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Ghost telescope imaging system from the perspective of coherent-mode representation,” Opt. Commun. 358, 88–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Geadah, Y. A.

Y. A. Geadah and M. J. G. Corinthios, “Natural, dyadic, and sequency order algorithms and processors for the Walsh-Hadamard transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 435–442 (1977).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G. M.

Gong, L. Y.

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, W.

Gu, X.

Han, S.

Klyshko, D. N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H. G.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L. Z.

Li, X.

Li, Y. Q.

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, W. Q.

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. T.

E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. F.

Ma, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, K. J.

Nie, L.

L. Nie, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Ghost telescope imaging system from the perspective of coherent-mode representation,” Opt. Commun. 358, 88–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1, 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

Radwell, N.

Sergienko, A. V.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Y. B.

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

Shih, Y. H.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D. V.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Welsh, S. S.

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. A.

Xiong, J.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yao, X. R.

Yu, W. K.

Zeng, G.

Zhai, G. J.

Zhang, D. J.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. F.

E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. L.

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. M.

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gu and S. M. Zhao, “Nonorthogonal object identification based on ghost imaging,” Photon. Res. 3, 238–242 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, J. S.

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

Y. A. Geadah and M. J. G. Corinthios, “Natural, dyadic, and sequency order algorithms and processors for the Walsh-Hadamard transform,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26, 435–442 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors,” J. Opt. 17, 025705 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. F. Zhang, W. T. Liu, and P. X. Chen, “Ghost imaging with non-negative exponential speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 17, 085602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. S. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6225–6230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

L. Nie, Y. Bai, and X. Fu, “Ghost telescope imaging system from the perspective of coherent-mode representation,” Opt. Commun. 358, 88–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, L. Wang, W. Q. Liang, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique,” Opt. Commun. 353, 90–95 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Q. Li, F. Cao, Y. B. Sheng, W. W. Cheng, and L. Y. Gong, “The influence of atmospheric turbulence on holographic ghost imaging using orbital angular momentum entanglement: simulation and experimental studies,” Opt. Commun. 294, 223–228 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. J. Zhang, H. G. Li, Q. L. Zhao, S. Wang, H. B. Wang, J. Xiong, and K. Wang, “Wavelength-multiplexing ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 013823 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, A. Fang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhang, S. Gao, H. Li, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Enhanced visibility of ghost imaging and interference using squeezed thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013822 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Corinthios, Signals, Systems, Transforms, and Digital Signal Processing with MATLAB (CRC Press, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the GIFWHT scheme.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the GIFWHT scheme experimental system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental and numerical simulation results of the “NUPT” logo, a ghost, and a face using the different schemes in the absence of environmental illumination, where MSE and reconstruction time are presented together.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reconstruction time of numerical simulation results of the “Lena” image of different sizes using the different methods. The values are the ensemble averages over 20 numerical simulation results.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental results of the “NUPT” logo, a ghost, and a face by using the GIFWHT scheme in the presence or absence of environmental illumination, where MSE and reconstruction time are presented together.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Bi=ηIi(x,y)T(x,y)dxdy+n,
B˜i=ηI˜i(x,y)T(x,y)dxdy+n.
Di=BiB˜i=η(Ii(x,y)I˜i(x,y))T(x,y)dxdy=ηΔIi(x,y)T(x,y)dxdy,
[D1D2DN]=η[ΔI1(1,1)ΔI1(1,2)ΔI1(Nx,Ny)ΔI2(1,1)ΔI2(1,2)ΔI2(Nx,Ny)ΔIN(1,1)ΔIN(1,2)ΔIN(Nx,Ny)][T(1,1)T(1,2)T(Nx,Ny)],
Hk=[ΔI1(1,1)ΔI1(1,2)ΔI1(Nx,Ny)ΔI2(1,1)ΔI2(1,2)ΔI2(Nx,Ny)ΔIN(1,1)ΔIN(1,2)ΔIN(Nx,Ny)],
D=ηHkT.
Hk1=λHk,
T=1ηHk1D=ληHkD.
H1=[1111].
Hk=[Hk1Hk1Hk1Hk1].
h(i,j)={1if  i=0;0jN1(1)jif  i=1;0jN1h(i2,j2)h(i2i2,j)if  2iN1;0jN1,
T(x,y)=1Ni=1N(DiD)Ii(x,y),
MSE=1Nx,y(T(x,y)T(x,y))2,

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