Abstract

We propose a novel silicon optical phase shifter structure based on heterogeneous strip-loaded waveguides on a photonic silicon on insulator (SOI) platform. The features of an etchless SOI layer and loaded strip would enhance the performance and uniformity of silicon optical modulators on a large-scale wafer. We implemented the phase shifter by loading an amorphous silicon strip onto an SOI layer with a vertical PN diode structure. Compared to the conventional lateral PN phase shifter based on half-etched rib waveguides, this phase shifter shows a >1.5 times enhancement of modulation efficiency and provides >20  GHz high-speed operation.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High-efficiency strip-loaded waveguide based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with vertical p-n junction phase shifter

Yuriko Maegami, Guangwei Cong, Morifumi Ohno, Makoto Okano, Kazuto Itoh, Nobuhiko Nishiyama, Shigehisa Arai, and Koji Yamada
Opt. Express 25(25) 31407-31416 (2017)

Optimizing an interleaved p-n junction to reduce energy dissipation in silicon slow-light modulators

Marco Passoni, Dario Gerace, Liam O’Faolain, and Lucio Claudio Andreani
Photon. Res. 8(4) 457-467 (2020)

2D modeling of silicon optical PN phase shifter

Darpan Mishra and Ramesh Kumar Sonkar
Appl. Opt. 59(4) 998-1007 (2020)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. G.-R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 5218–5226 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16, 334–339 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4  V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25  μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 7994–7999 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10  dB at 10.0–12.5  Gbps,” Opt. Express 19, B26–B31 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30  Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19, 26936–26947 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20, B350–B356 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3556–3562 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 15093–15099 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. V. Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 12926–12938 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. FIMMWAVE/FIMMPROP, Photon Design Ltd., http://www.photond.com .
  18. Lumerical Solutions, Inc., https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/device/ .
  19. Lumerical Solutions, Inc., https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/mode/ .
  20. K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. V. Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20, B350–B356 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

Alloatti, L.

Arakawa, Y.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Ayazi, A.

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Campenhout, J. V.

Cassan, E.

Chen, S.-W.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chi, H. K.

Cho, M. H.

Chu, T.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fang, Q.

Fédéli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Fujikata, J.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geis, M. W.

Goi, K.

Grein, M. E.

Harris, N. C.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hirayama, N.

Hochberg, M.

Horikawa, T.

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, M. S.

Imai, M.

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jang, K. S.

Jeong, D. K.

Joo, J.

Kame, T.

Kamei, T.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H. C.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kusaka, H.

Kwong, D.-L.

Laval, S.

Lee, J. M.

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, P.

Lennon, D. M.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lyan, P.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manako, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, K.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, M.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, Y.

Oda, K.

Ogawa, K.

Oh, J. H.

Okano, M.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okayama, H.

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

Park, G. S.

Park, J. M.

Park, J. W.

Park, K. S.

Petermann, K.

Petousi, D.

Pinguet, T.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulein, R. T.

Shafiiha, R.

Spector, S. J.

Streshinsky, M.

Suzuki, M.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takei, R.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y. T.

Teo, S. H.-G.

Terada, Y.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Usuki, T.

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Voigt, K.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yoon, J. U.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zimmermann, L.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, M. Noguchi, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High-performance MOS-capacitor-type Si optical modulator and surface-illumination-type Ge photodetector for optical interconnection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 55, 04EC01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kame, “Sub-1  dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16, 334–339 (2008).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 5218–5226 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4  V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25  μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10  dB at 10.0–12.5  Gbps,” Opt. Express 19, B26–B31 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30  Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19, 26936–26947 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. V. Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20, B350–B356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

FIMMWAVE/FIMMPROP, Photon Design Ltd., http://www.photond.com .

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/device/ .

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/mode/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) MZM schematic with proposed phase shifters. (b) Proposed phase shifter using heterogeneous strip-loaded waveguide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Cross-sectional schematic of the proposed a-Si:H strip-loaded modulator. (b) Optical field of strip-loaded waveguide for 75 nm thick and 800 nm wide a-Si:H strip. (c) Cross-sectional schematic of a rib waveguide for conventional modulators. (d) Optical field of rib waveguide for 110 nm high and 600 nm wide rib.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Confinement factors of strip-loaded waveguide and rib waveguide as functions of strip and rib height.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Overlap integral of optical mode field and depletion region as function of strip and rib height.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Phase shift in relation to reverse bias. (b) PN overlap dependence of efficiency VπL.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of propagation loss between the conventional lateral PN modulator in the rib waveguide and the proposed vertical one with three different overlap distances.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Capacitance of the conventional lateral PN junction and the proposed vertical one as a function of bias.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Transient response and (b) frequency response of the proposed phase shifter.

Metrics