Abstract

Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has gained interest due to its potential to increase capacity in optical communication systems as well as an additional domain for reconfigurable networks. This is due to the following: (i) coaxially propagated OAM beams with different charges are mutually orthogonal, (ii) OAM beams can be efficiently multiplexed and demultiplexed, and (iii) OAM charges can be efficiently manipulated. Therefore, multiple data-carrying OAM beams could have the potential capability for reconfigurable optical switching and routing. In this paper, we discuss work involving reconfigurable OAM-based optical add/drop multiplexing, space switching, polarization switching, channel hopping, and multicasting.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (7)

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, A. Li, J. Ye, A. A. Amin, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of few-mode compatible optical add/drop multiplexer for mode-division multiplexed superchannel,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 641–647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47–60 (2000).

1998 (1)

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoğlu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Amin, A. A.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, N. J.

Ashrafi, S.

Azizoglu, M.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoğlu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Barnett, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Birnbaum, K. M.

Bock, R.

Boyd, R. W.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

Cao, Y.

Chand, N.

Chen, X.

Courtial, J.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Doerr, C. R.

Dolinar, S.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S. J.

Du, J.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Effenberger, F.

Erkmen, B. I.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gibson, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gu, R. Y.

R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

Hao, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-K.

R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

Ip, E.

R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47–60 (2000).

Kahn, J. M.

R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Li, A.

Li, G.

Li, L.

Li, M.-J.

R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

Li, S.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Liao, P.

Liu, C.

Liu, J.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Magarini, M.

Mirhosseini, M.

Mokhtar, A.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoğlu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Molisch, A. F.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47–60 (2000).

Neifeld, M. A.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rogawski, D.

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Shieh, W.

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

Wang, A.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Wang, J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Wang, Z.

Wen, H.

Willner, A.

Willner, A. E.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. J.

Willner, M. J.

Winzer, P. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Xie, G.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. J. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).

N. Ahmed, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable 2 × 2 orbital angular momentum based optical switching of 50-Gbaud QPSK channels,” Opt. Express 22, 756–761 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yao, A. M.

Ye, J.

Yue, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
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Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47–60 (2000).

Zhao, N.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Zhao, Z.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, L.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (2)

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoğlu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197–206 (1998).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Hao, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100  Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20  Gbit/s data encoding and 2  ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, G. Xie, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Reconfigurable switching of orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5118–5121 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Liquid-crystal-on-silicon-based optical add/drop multiplexer for orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed optical links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5142–5145 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100  Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39, 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, Z. Wang, P. Liao, L. Li, G. Xie, H. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, A. Willner, M. P. J. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, I. B. Djordjevic, M. A. Neifeld, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120  m,” Opt. Lett. 41, 622–625 (2016).
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Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47–60 (2000).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, J. Du, S. Li, Y. Luo, A. Wang, L. Zhu, and J. Wang, “Experimental demonstration of 260-meter security free-space optical data transmission using 16-QAM carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1H.3.

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R. Y. Gu, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, and J. M. Kahn, “Experimental demonstration of a spatial light modulator few-mode fiber switch for space-division multiplexing,” in Frontiers in Optics (2013), paper FW6B-4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Concept of (a) an OAM-multiplexed optical network with OAM-multiplexed optical connections and OAM-based reconfigurable optical networking functions: (b) charge shift, (c) charge exchange, and (d) charge-selective manipulation [3,18].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Concept of OAM channel add/drop multiplexing [19].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental results: (a1)–(a6) intensity profiles of multiplexed OAM beams for each step of adding/dropping the OAM + 2 channel; BER curves for (b1) added/dropped channels and (b2) pass-through channels. B2B, back-to-back; BER, bit error rate; conv., conversion; MUX, multiplex; OSNR, optical signal-to-noise ratio [19].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Functional block diagram of the 2 × 2 OAM-based switch. Switching is performed with the help of mode downconversion, programmable beam steering, and mode upconversion stages [20].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. BERs for modes appearing at output port A for different switch configurations: (a) channels from input port A, (b) channels from input port B, (c) channels from input port A while switch was in “bar” state. FEC: forward error correction [20].
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Procedures of the conversion (a) from a polarization-multiplexed signal to an OAM-multiplexed signal, (b) from an OAM-multiplexed signal to a polarization-multiplexed signal. MUX, multiplexing [21].
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Schematic view of conversion (a) from OAM + 2 on x -pol and y -pol to OAM + 3 and OAM + 6 on x -pol, and (b) from OAM + 1 and OAM + 6 on x -pol to OAM + 1 on x -pol and y -pol [21].
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Concept of channel hopping in the spatial domain using OAM modes; one period of the received waveforms for channel = + 1 at hopping rates of (b1) 10 and (b2) 50 MHz; recovered 100    Gbit / s QPSK constellations for channel = + 1 during the (b3) data period and (b4) hopping transition time at 50 MHz hopping rate (2 ns guard time). Mode set = 3 , 1 , + 1 , + 3 is used [22].
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Concept of the multicasting function in an OAM multiplexing system, (b) the OAM power spectrum before and after multicasting [23].

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