Abstract

We demonstrated long-period grating (LPG) inscription on polymer functionalized optical microfibers and its applications in optical sensing. Optical microfibers were functionalized with ultraviolet-sensitive polymethyl methacrylate jackets and, thus, LPGs could be inscribed on optical microfibers via point-by-point ultraviolet laser exposure. For a 2 mm long microfiber LPG (MLPG) inscribed on optical microfibers with a diameter of 5.4 μm, a resonant dip of 15 dB at 1377 nm was observed. This MLPG showed a high sensitivity of strain and axial force, i.e., 1.93  pm/μϵ and 1.15  pm/μN, respectively. Although the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of the LPGs is relatively low, i.e., 12.75  pm/°C, it can be increased to be 385.11  pm/°C by appropriate sealing. Benefiting from the small footprint and high sensitivity, MLPGs could have potential applications in optical sensing of strain, axial force, and temperature.

Journal © 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (7)

Z. Xu, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Versatile technique to functionalize optical microfibers via a modified sol-gel dip-coating method,” Opt. Lett. 39, 34–36 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Bo, C. C. O’Mahony, Y. Semenova, N. Gilmartin, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “Microfiber coupler based label-free immunosensor,” Opt. Express 22, 8150–8155 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “In situ fine tailoring of group velocity dispersion in optical microfibers via nanocoatings,” Opt. Express 22, 28338–28345 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X. Guo, Y. Ying, and L. Tong, “Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 656–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Zhao, and L. Wang, “Demonstration of almost octave-spanning cascaded four-wave mixing in optical microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3441–3443 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320–1327 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1982 (1)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374–375 (1982).
[Crossref]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhatia, V.

Birks, T.

Bo, L.

Brambilla, G.

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 107–161 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bruendel, M.

Chen, B.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chiam, Y. S.

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farrell, G.

Feng, J.

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Gan, S. N.

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gilmartin, N.

Gu, F.

Guo, H.

Guo, X.

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, Y. Ying, and L. Tong, “Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 656–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harun, S. W.

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henzi, P.

Horak, P.

Hsiao, V. K. S.

Hu, Z.

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ichihashi, Y.

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jin, W.

Jung, Y.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374–375 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, F.

Kou, J.

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koukharenko, E.

Lee, C. L.

Li, W.

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, V. K. S. Hsiao, X. Li, Z. Li, J. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Optically tunable microfiber-knot resonator,” Opt. Express 19, 14217–14222 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liang, J.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, K. S.

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. J.

Lin, Y.

Liu, S.

Liu, W.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lou, J.

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelength-diameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film,” Opt. Express 16, 13349–13353 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meng, C.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mohr, J.

Murugan, G. S.

Namba, S.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374–375 (1982).
[Crossref]

Newson, T. P.

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Mahony, C. C.

Pang, F.

Phang, S. W.

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rabus, D. G.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Semenova, Y.

Sessions, N. P.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, Y. Ying, and L. Tong, “Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 656–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and L. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelength-diameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film,” Opt. Express 16, 13349–13353 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1710–1712 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374–375 (1982).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vienne, G.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, H.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y. P.

Weng, Z. Y.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xiao, L.

Xiao, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

Xu, Y.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Xuan, H.

Yan, J.

Yang, R.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
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Yin, X.

Ying, Y.

X. Guo, Y. Ying, and L. Tong, “Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 656–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
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Zeng, X.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
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Zhao, Y.

Zhu, C.

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Zi, F.

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

X. Guo, Y. Ying, and L. Tong, “Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 656–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374–375 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Chen, C. Zhu, R. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Point-by-point dip coated long-period gratings in microfibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2503–2506 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref]

Open Opt. J. (1)

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, “A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors,” Open Opt. J. 7, 32–57 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Tong, F. Zi, X. Guo, and J. Lou, “Optical microfibers and nanofibers: a tutorial,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4641–4647 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. Hu, X. Li, W. Fang, X. Guo, L. Tong, and J. Lou, “High-sensitivity microfiber strain and force sensors,” Opt. Commun. 314, 28–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (9)

H. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Kakarantzas, T. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Low-loss deposition of solgel-derived silica films on tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 694–696 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3414–3416 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lee, Z. Y. Weng, C. J. Lin, and Y. Lin, “Leakage coupling of ultrasensitive periodical silica thin-film long-period grating coated on tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4172–4174 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ichihashi, P. Henzi, M. Bruendel, J. Mohr, and D. G. Rabus, “Polymer waveguides from alicyclic methacrylate copolymer fabricated by deep-UV exposure,” Opt. Lett. 32, 379–381 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, Y. Li, and L. Wang, “Versatile technique to functionalize optical microfibers via a modified sol-gel dip-coating method,” Opt. Lett. 39, 34–36 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and L. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Zhao, and L. Wang, “Demonstration of almost octave-spanning cascaded four-wave mixing in optical microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3441–3443 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1710–1712 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

Y. S. Chiam, K. S. Lim, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan, and S. W. Phang, “Conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection,” Sens. Actuators A 205, 58–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

J. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, “Microfiber-based Bragg gratings for sensing applications: a review,” Sensors 12, 8861–8876 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic for the inscription of MLPGs via point-by-point ultraviolet exposure. A supercontinuum source (SCS) is used for illumination and the transmission spectrum is displayed on an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) in real time.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Transmission spectrum of a 25-period MLPG. The grating pitch is 80 μm and the diameter of the optical microfiber is 5.4 μm. (b) The calculated grating pitches for different resonant dip wavelengths in optical microfiber with a diameter of 5.4 μm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Spectral responses of the MLPG to strain. The applied strain ranged from 0 to 7533 μϵ. (b) The measured resonant dip wavelengths (square scatters) and the linear fitting result (red line). The corresponding applied axial force is shown as the top axis.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spectral responses of (a) unsealed and (b) sealed MLPGs to temperature change. (c) The measured resonant wavelengths of sealed (square scatters) and unsealed (circle scatters) MLPGs at different temperatures. The linear fitting results are shown as red lines.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λΛ(neff,0neff,v).
dλdϵ=dλd(Δneff)d(Δneff)dϵ+dλdΛΛ,
F=πr2ϵE,

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