Abstract

In this paper, we put forward a weak blind quantum signature scheme based on quantum entanglement swapping of Bell states. Different from the existing quantum signature schemes, our scheme can offer two-step verification security services to ensure the validity of the verification. In order to guarantee the unconditional security of the scheme, the quantum key distribution protocol and one-time pad encryption algorithm are employed in our scheme. Besides, the entanglement swapping of Bell states mechanism enhances the security of verification criteria. The proposed scheme has the properties of nonforgeability, nonrepudiation, blindness, and traceability.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  1. W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 22, 644–654 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Gottesman and I. Chuang, “Quantum digital signatures,” arXiv: quant-ph/0105032v2 (2001), pp. 1–8.
  3. G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, “Arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. J. Wen, Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation,” Z. Naturforsch. 62, 147–151 (2007).
  6. G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Curty and N. Lütkenhaus, “Comment on ‘arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 046301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. H. Zeng, “Reply to ‘comment on arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 016301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. Q. Li, W. H. Chan, and D. Y. Long, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 054307 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 042325 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Naseri, “Comment on a weak blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6, 5051–5053 (2011).
  13. Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. W. Yang, T. Hwang, and Y. P. Luo, “Enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 109–117 (2013).
  15. M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1245–1254 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Y. Wang and Q. Y. Wen, “Fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060307 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 2071–2085 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. M. Wang, X. B. Chen, and Y. X. Yang, “A blind quantum signature protocol using the GHZ states,” Sci. China 56, 1636–1643 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Khodambashi and A. Zakerolhosseini, “A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 121–130 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1917–1929 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Y. Wang, X. Q. Cai, and R. L. Zhang, “Reexamining the security of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1677–1685 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. O. Boykin and V. Roychowdhury, “Optimal encryption of quantum bits,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042317 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Meijer and S. Akl, “Advance in cryptography,” in Proceedings of Crypto ’81 (Springer-Verlag, 1981), p. 65.

2014 (4)

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1245–1254 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Khodambashi and A. Zakerolhosseini, “A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 121–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1917–1929 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Wang, X. Q. Cai, and R. L. Zhang, “Reexamining the security of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1677–1685 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 2071–2085 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Wang, X. B. Chen, and Y. X. Yang, “A blind quantum signature protocol using the GHZ states,” Sci. China 56, 1636–1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Yang, T. Hwang, and Y. P. Luo, “Enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 109–117 (2013).

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Naseri, “Comment on a weak blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6, 5051–5053 (2011).

2010 (3)

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 042325 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Wang and Q. Y. Wen, “Fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060307 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, W. H. Chan, and D. Y. Long, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 054307 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Curty and N. Lütkenhaus, “Comment on ‘arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 046301 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. H. Zeng, “Reply to ‘comment on arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 016301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. J. Wen, Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation,” Z. Naturforsch. 62, 147–151 (2007).

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. O. Boykin and V. Roychowdhury, “Optimal encryption of quantum bits,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042317 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, “Arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 22, 644–654 (1976).
[Crossref]

Akl, S.

H. Meijer and S. Akl, “Advance in cryptography,” in Proceedings of Crypto ’81 (Springer-Verlag, 1981), p. 65.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref]

Boykin, P. O.

P. O. Boykin and V. Roychowdhury, “Optimal encryption of quantum bits,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042317 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cai, X. Q.

T. Y. Wang, X. Q. Cai, and R. L. Zhang, “Reexamining the security of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1677–1685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. H.

Q. Li, W. H. Chan, and D. Y. Long, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 054307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. B.

M. M. Wang, X. B. Chen, and Y. X. Yang, “A blind quantum signature protocol using the GHZ states,” Sci. China 56, 1636–1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chuang, I.

D. Gottesman and I. Chuang, “Quantum digital signatures,” arXiv: quant-ph/0105032v2 (2001), pp. 1–8.

Curty, M.

M. Curty and N. Lütkenhaus, “Comment on ‘arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 046301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diffie, W.

W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 22, 644–654 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ekert, A. K.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman and I. Chuang, “Quantum digital signatures,” arXiv: quant-ph/0105032v2 (2001), pp. 1–8.

Guo, Y.

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, G. Q.

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, L. B.

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hellman, M.

W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 22, 644–654 (1976).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Horne, M. A.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. S.

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hwang, T.

C. W. Yang, T. Hwang, and Y. P. Luo, “Enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 109–117 (2013).

Ji, L. P.

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keitel, C. H.

G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, “Arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khodambashi, S.

S. Khodambashi and A. Zakerolhosseini, “A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 121–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. H.

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, W. H. Chan, and D. Y. Long, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 054307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, W. M.

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1917–1929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1245–1254 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. Y.

X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

X. J. Wen, Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation,” Z. Naturforsch. 62, 147–151 (2007).

Long, D. Y.

Q. Li, W. H. Chan, and D. Y. Long, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 054307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y. P.

C. W. Yang, T. Hwang, and Y. P. Luo, “Enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 109–117 (2013).

Lütkenhaus, N.

M. Curty and N. Lütkenhaus, “Comment on ‘arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 046301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, W. P.

X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meijer, H.

H. Meijer and S. Akl, “Advance in cryptography,” in Proceedings of Crypto ’81 (Springer-Verlag, 1981), p. 65.

Naseri, M.

M. Naseri, “Comment on a weak blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6, 5051–5053 (2011).

Niu, X. M.

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, D. W.

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 2071–2085 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 042325 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roychowdhury, V.

P. O. Boykin and V. Roychowdhury, “Optimal encryption of quantum bits,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042317 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, Q.

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1917–1929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Su and W. M. Li, “Cryptanalysis of enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1245–1254 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

X. J. Wen, Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation,” Z. Naturforsch. 62, 147–151 (2007).

Tian, Y.

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, X. B. Chen, and Y. X. Yang, “A blind quantum signature protocol using the GHZ states,” Sci. China 56, 1636–1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. Y.

T. Y. Wang, X. Q. Cai, and R. L. Zhang, “Reexamining the security of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1677–1685 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Wang and Q. Y. Wen, “Fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q. Y.

T. Y. Wang and Q. Y. Wen, “Fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, X. J.

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wen, Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Quantum multi-signature protocol based on teleportation,” Z. Naturforsch. 62, 147–151 (2007).

Xu, G. A.

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. W.

C. W. Yang, T. Hwang, and Y. P. Luo, “Enhancement on ‘quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 109–117 (2013).

Yang, H. J.

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. X.

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Wang, X. B. Chen, and Y. X. Yang, “A blind quantum signature protocol using the GHZ states,” Sci. China 56, 1636–1643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, X. R.

X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zakerolhosseini, A.

S. Khodambashi and A. Zakerolhosseini, “A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 121–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zeng, G. H.

G. H. Zeng, “Reply to ‘comment on arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 016301 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, “Arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R. L.

T. Y. Wang, X. Q. Cai, and R. L. Zhang, “Reexamining the security of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 13, 1677–1685 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zou, X. F.

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes,” Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 2071–2085 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. F. Zou and D. W. Qiu, “Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 042325 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zukowski, M.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (2)

T. Y. Wang and Q. Y. Wen, “Fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 060307 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. B. He, L. S. Huang, W. Yang, and R. Xu, “Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 030306 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. (1)

W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 22, 644–654 (1976).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Phys. Sci. (1)

M. Naseri, “Comment on a weak blind signature based on quantum cryptography,” Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6, 5051–5053 (2011).

Int. J. Quantum Inform. (1)

G. H. Zeng, M. H. Lee, Y. Guo, and G. Q. He, “Continuous variable quantum signature algorithm,” Int. J. Quantum Inform. 5, 553–573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Theor. Phys. (2)

M. Zhang, G. A. Xu, X. B. Chen, S. Yang, and Y. X. Yang, “Attack on the improved quantum blind signature protocol,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 331–335 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. R. Yin, W. P. Ma, and W. Y. Liu, “A blind quantum signature scheme with χ-type entangled states,” Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51, 455–461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Q. Su, Z. Huang, Q. Y. Wen, and W. Li, “Quantum blind signature based on two-state vector formalism,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4408–4410 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wen, X. M. Niu, L. P. Ji, and Y. Tian, “A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography,” Opt. Commun. 282, 666–669 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

H. Lee, C. Hong, H. Kim, J. Lim, and H. J. Yang, “Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery,” Phys. Lett. A 321, 295–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

M. Curty and N. Lütkenhaus, “Comment on ‘arbitrated quantum-signature scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 046301 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Tables (3)

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Table 1. Initial Message is Converted into Blind Message

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Table 2. Criteria of Measurement Base Selection

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Table 3. Validation Rules of the Scheme

Equations (9)

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|ψ+=12(|0|1+|1|0)=12(|+|+||),
|ψ=12(|0|1|1|0)=12(|+|||+),
|ϕ+=12(|0|0+|1|1)=12(|+|++||),
|ϕ=12(|0|0|1|1)=12(|+|+||+),
σ1|ψAB|ψCD=|ψAB|ψCD=12(|ψAC|ψBD+|ϕAC+|ϕBD+|ψAC+|ψBD+|ϕAC|ϕBD),
σ2|ψAB|ψCD=|ψAB+|ψCD=12(|ψAC+|ψBD|ψAC|ψBD+|ϕAC+|ϕBD+|ϕAC|ϕBD+),
σ3|ψAB|ψCD=|ϕAB|ψCD=12(|ϕAC+|ψBD++|ϕAC|ψBD|ψAC+|ϕBD+|ψAC|ϕBD),
σ4|ψAB|ψCD=|ϕAB+|ψCD=12(|ϕAC|ψBD+|ψAC+|ϕBD|ψAC|ϕBD++|ϕAC+|ψBD).
Wj={wj1,wj2,,wjn,,wjn+l}(jA,B,C,D).

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