Abstract

We report a simple solution-processed method for the fabrication of low-cost, flexible optical limiting materials based on graphene oxide (GO) impregnated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sheets. Such GO–PVA composite sheets display highly efficient broadband optical limiting activities for femtosecond laser pulses at 400, 800, and 1400 nm with very low limiting thresholds. Femtosecond pump–probe measurement results revealed that nonlinear absorption played an important role for the observed optical limiting activities. High flexibility and efficient optical limiting activities of these materials allow these composite sheets to be attached to nonplanar optical sensors in order to protect them from light-induced damage.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  8. Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
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  9. B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. N. Liaros, E. Koudoumas, and S. Couris, “Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191112 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  20. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Gan, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171105 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Liaros, E. Koudoumas, and S. Couris, “Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191112 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

V. Mamidala, L. Polavarapu, J. Balapanuru, K. P. Loh, Q.-H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in donor-acceptor ionic complexes via photo induced energy transfer,” Opt. Express 18, 25928–25935 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Feng, H. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 2298–2303 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).
[Crossref]

Akundi, M. A.

Anand, B.

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Anglaret, E.

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Balapanuru, J.

Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cao, B.

B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Feng, H. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-L.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chua, L.-L.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clark, J.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cook, M. J.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Couris, S.

N. Liaros, E. Koudoumas, and S. Couris, “Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191112 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

Y. Gan, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Feng, H. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gan, Y.

Y. Gan, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Godbout, N.

Goh, R. G. S.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guan, Z. P.

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hache, F.

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanack, M.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, T. C.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. K. H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hold, S. V.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hummers, W. S.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).
[Crossref]

Iliopoulos, K.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Mamidala, L. Polavarapu, J. Balapanuru, K. P. Loh, Q.-H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in donor-acceptor ionic complexes via photo induced energy transfer,” Opt. Express 18, 25928–25935 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 2298–2303 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X. F.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jose, R.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaniyoor, A.

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Karakouz, T.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kian Ping, L.

Kockaert, P.

Koudoumas, E.

N. Liaros, E. Koudoumas, and S. Couris, “Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishna, M. B. M.

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V. P.

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lançon, P.

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liaros, N.

N. Liaros, E. Koudoumas, and S. Couris, “Broadband near infrared optical power limiting of few layered graphene oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. T.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, G.-K.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. B.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Mamidala, L. Polavarapu, J. Balapanuru, K. P. Loh, Q.-H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in donor-acceptor ionic complexes via photo induced energy transfer,” Opt. Express 18, 25928–25935 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lotya, M.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Ma, J.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mamidala, V.

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Mamidala, L. Polavarapu, J. Balapanuru, K. P. Loh, Q.-H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in donor-acceptor ionic complexes via photo induced energy transfer,” Opt. Express 18, 25928–25935 (2010).
[Crossref]

Massar, S.

Neo, S. T.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ng, W.-H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Flaherty, S. M.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).
[Crossref]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
[Crossref]

Philip, R.

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Polavarapu, L.

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Mamidala, L. Polavarapu, J. Balapanuru, K. P. Loh, Q.-H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Enhanced nonlinear optical responses in donor-acceptor ionic complexes via photo induced energy transfer,” Opt. Express 18, 25928–25935 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 2298–2303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, T. P.

A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramaprabhu, S.

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Rao, D. N.

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and M. A. Akundi, “Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 13, 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Riehl, D.

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rubinstein, I.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sai, S. S. S.

B. Anand, A. Kaniyoor, S. S. S. Sai, R. Philip, and S. Ramaprabhu, “Enhanced optical limiting in functionalized hydrogen exfoliated graphene and its metal hybrids,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 2773–2780 (2013).

Sun, H. D.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.-W.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tan, K. L.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Teng, X.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, J. G.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tong, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torres, T.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vaskevich, A.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Venkatesan, R.

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Venkatesan, T.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

Venkatram, N.

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 2298–2303 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and M. A. Akundi, “Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 13, 867–872 (2005).
[Crossref]

Venkatramaiah, N.

M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Virally, S.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, P. Lançon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40, 1789–1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wan, X. J.

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20, 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. X.

W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. P.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xenogiannopoulou, E.

E. Xenogiannopoulou, K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, T. Karakouz, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of gold-island films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1281–1289 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q. H.

L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 785–790 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 2298–2303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.-H.

Xu, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. F.

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, X. Q.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. H.

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Zhang, H.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
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W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
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J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
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Z. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Chen, and J. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021902 (2009).
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Zhang, X. L.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
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Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
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Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009).
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B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
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Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tong, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene–polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 782–791 (2010).
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S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15, 19–32 (2003).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Feng, H. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

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L. Polavarapu, V. Mamidala, Z. P. Guan, W. Ji, and Q. H. Xu, “Huge enhancement of optical nonlinearities in coupled Au and Ag nanoparticles induced by conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023106 (2012).
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M. B. M. Krishna, V. P. Kumar, N. Venkatramaiah, R. Venkatesan, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of covalently linked graphene-metal porphyrin composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081106 (2011).
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Y. Gan, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171105 (2014).
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Carbon (3)

J. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon 49, 1900–1905 (2011).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z. B. Liu, Y. F. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Porphyrin and fullerene covalently functionalized graphene hybrid materials with large nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9681–9686 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

B. Zhao, B. Cao, W. Zhou, D. Li, and W. Zhao, “Nonlinear optical transmission of nanographene and its composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12517–12523 (2010).
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A. Patra, N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and T. P. Radhakrishnan, “Optical limiting in organic molecular nano/microcrystals: nonlinear optical effects dependent on size distribution,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16269–16274 (2008).
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Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1972–1977 (2011).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, M. Wu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Graphene sheet stacks for Q-switching operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075102 (2013).
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Opt. Express (3)

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W. Wei, T. C. He, X. Teng, S. X. Wu, L. Ma, H. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. H. Yang, H. Y. Chen, Y. Han, H. D. Sun, and L. Huang, “Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance,” Small 8, 2271–2276 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) AFM image of the as-prepared GO nanosheets. (b) Solution-processed preparation of flexible GO–PVA sheets by impregnating GO into PVA matrix and its bright field imaging. The inset is the schematic representation of GO–PVA sheets.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) UV–Vis–NIR transmittance spectra of GO–PVA sheets prepared with different GO/PVA weight ratios. (b) Raman spectra of GO before and after the impregnation into PVA sheet.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Open aperture Z-scan results of a GO–PVA sheet (GOPVA=0.00251) at (a) 400 and (b) 800 nm under different excitation fluences. Optical limiting response of GO–PVA sheets of different GO/PVA weight ratios under femtosecond laser pulses at (c) 400 and (d) 800 nm, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Open aperture Z-scan results of a GO–PVA sheet (GOPVA=0.00251) at 1400 nm under excitation fluence of 68mJ/cm2. This sample was kept in the different moisture conditions for more than 24 h before test.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Excitation fluence dependent ultrafast relaxation dynamics of GO–PVA sheet (GOPVA=0.00251) measured by femtosecond pump–probe technique. Inset shows the normalized data on a shorter time scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Linear Transmittance (T), Optical Limiting Onsets (Fon) and Thresholds (F50) of GO–PVA Sheets with Different Weight Ratios at 800 and 400 nm

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