Abstract

In this paper, both nonlinear saturable absorption and two-photon absorption (TPA) of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) were observed at 1.56 μm wavelength and further applied to mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser for the first time to our knowledge. Few-layer MoSe2 nanosheets were prepared by liquid-phase exfoliation method and characterized by x ray diffractometer, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The obtained few-layer MoSe2 dispersion is further composited with a polymer material for convenient fabrication of MoSe2 thin films. Then, we investigated the nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption property of the few-layer MoSe2 film using a balanced twin-detector measurement technique. Both the saturable absorption and TPA effects of the few-layer MoSe2 film were found by increasing the input optical intensity. The saturable absorption shows a modulation depth of 0.63% and a low nonsaturable loss of 3.5%, corresponding to the relative modulation depth of 18%. The TPA effect occurred when the input optical intensity exceeds 260MW/cm2. Furthermore, we experimentally exploit the saturable absorption of few-layer MoSe2 film to mode lock an all-fiber erbium-doped fiber laser. Stable soliton mode locking at 1558 nm center wavelength is achieved with pulse duration of 1.45 ps. It was also observed that the TPA process suppresses the mode-locking operation in the case of higher optical intensity. Our results indicate that layered MoSe2, as another two-dimensional nanomaterial, can provide excellent NLO properties (e.g., saturable absorption and TPA) for potential applications in ultrashort pulse generation and optical limiting.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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2015 (2)

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Ruan, “Multi-pulses dynamic patterns in a topological insulator mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 335, 65–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95  GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (18)

H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, H. Zhang, C.-J. Zhao, and S.-C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Y. Wang, P. Yan, J. Zhao, H. Li, and R. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 11417–11426 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130  fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Dou, Y. Song, J. Tian, J. Liu, Z. Yu, and X. Fang, “Mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator: Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 22, 24055–24061 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. Wen, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4077–4084 (2014).

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Woodward, E. Kelleher, R. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, and E. Ringe, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125–5131 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 17227–17235 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2  μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 411–415 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Luo, N. Zhao, Z. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, X. Zheng, L. Liu, J. Liao, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Trapping of soliton molecule in a graphene-based mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2450–2453 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

D. Zen, N. Saidin, S. Damanhuri, S. Harun, H. Ahmad, M. Ismail, K. Dimyati, A. Halder, M. Paul, and S. Das, “Mode-locked thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser using graphene saturable absorber in ring cavity,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1226–1229 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78  μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16763–16776 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O. Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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2012 (9)

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576–5580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, J. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 229 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, S. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
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B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1792–1794 (2012).
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H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
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M. Zhang, E. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4008–4010 (2011).
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H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, Z. Jiang, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked Tm–CHo-codoped fiber laser at 2.06  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
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2010 (6)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
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2009 (6)

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube—polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of nanotubes and graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3680–3695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev A. 72, 043816 (2005).
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A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Theoretical analysis of the operating regime of a passively-mode-locked fiber laser through nonlinear polarization rotation,” Phys. Rev A 72, 063811 (2005).
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2004 (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Özkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198, 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Low threshold, 290  fs erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror pumped by InGaAsP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2073–2075 (1991).
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Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130  fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

Andraud, C.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[Crossref]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ataca, C.

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576–5580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

Baldeck, P. L.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Barzda, V.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube—polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brunel, M.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Özkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198, 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4077–4084 (2014).

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, J. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carriles, R.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chartier, T.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Özkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198, 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Che, K.

Chen, H.

P. Yan, R. Lin, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Ruan, “Multi-pulses dynamic patterns in a topological insulator mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 335, 65–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95  GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23, 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-L.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, X.

Chow, W. L.

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, and E. Ringe, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125–5131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chua, L.-L.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cisek, R.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clark, J.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of nanotubes and graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3680–3695 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Damanhuri, S.

Das, S.

Dimyati, K.

Dong, J.

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, D. Wu, C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and L. Chen, “Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2732–2739 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dou, Z.

Du, J.

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O. Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Feng, X.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O. Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A.

M. Zhang, E. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kelleher, J. Travers, Z. Sun, A. Rozhin, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube—polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Field, J. J.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O. Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fu, B.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2  μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 411–415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuse, K.

Gauthier, D. J.

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, Z. Jiang, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked Tm–CHo-codoped fiber laser at 2.06  μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 682–684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Godbout, N.

Goh, R. G.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5, 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, and E. Ringe, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125–5131 (2014).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

A. Luo, N. Zhao, Z. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, X. Zheng, L. Liu, J. Liao, X. Wang, and W. Xu, “Trapping of soliton molecule in a graphene-based mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2450–2453 (2014).
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Luo, Z.-C.

Mao, D.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

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A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Özkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198, 141–146 (2001).
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Ping, L. K.

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Privitera, G.

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Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Woodward, E. Kelleher, R. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 17227–17235 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, E. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. Ferrari, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Y. Wang, P. Yan, J. Zhao, H. Li, and R. Lin, “Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength dissipative soliton generation in a graphene oxide mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 11417–11426 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (7)

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78  μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4008–4010 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, S. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q-switching and mode locking of 1.34  μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2652–2654 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref]

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A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Theoretical analysis of the operating regime of a passively-mode-locked fiber laser through nonlinear polarization rotation,” Phys. Rev A 72, 063811 (2005).
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Phys. Rev A. (1)

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev A. 72, 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. Savchenko, and S. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
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R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

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Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
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Other (1)

K. Wu, J. H. Wong, Z. Luo, C. Ouyang, P. Shum, and Z. Shen, “Phase noise and timing jitter eliminator for mode-locked lasers based on external graphene layers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThL5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Characterization of few-layer MoSe2 by the LPE method. (a) MoSe2 solution before (left) and after (right) sonication. (b) XRD patterns of the bulk MoSe2 (top) and exfoliated few-layer MoSe2 (bottom). (c) Typical AFM image and the height profile diagram (inset) of the few-layer MoSe2 nanosheets. (d) Raman spectrum of the exfoliated MoSe2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Balanced twin-detector measurement system for measuring the NLO absorption of the fiber-compatible PVA-MoSe2 film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured nonlinear absorption characteristics of the few-layer MoSe2 film at 1566 nm wavelength. SA, saturable absorption.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experiment setup of the proposed EDFL passively mode-locked by the few-layer MoSe2 film.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical spectrum and (b) typical oscilloscope trace of the passive Q-switching operation at the pump power of 17.4 mW. Inset, single-pulse envelope.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Mode-locked optical spectrum and (b) mode-locked pulse trains at the pump power of 33.4 mW.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked pulses at the fundamental RF peak. (b) Broadband RF spectrum with a frequency span of 600 MHz. The autocorrelation traces of the mode-locked pulses with the (c) narrow and (d) broad scanning range are also shown.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Average output power as a function of the pump power when (a) turning on and (b) turning off the pump power.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Stability measurement of soliton mode locking by repeatedly scanning the output optical spectra at 10-min intervals.

Equations (4)

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α=Δα/(1+I/Isat)+αlinear.
α=βI2+αlinear.
TBP=τ×c·Δλ/λ02,
Ep3.11λ02/2πcγ|Dav|/τ.

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