Abstract

We propose a low-threshold soliton fiber laser passively mode locked with two different types of film-like saturable absorbers, one of which is fabricated by mixing Bi2Te3 with de-ionized water, as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and then evaporating them in a Petri dish, and the other of which is prepared by directly dropping Bi2Te3 solution on the PVA film. Both Bi2Te3–PVA films exhibit outstanding features of low loss, high flexibility, and easy synthesis. By incorporating Bi2Te3–PVA films into fiber lasers, stable single-soliton emissions are obtained at a low pump power of 13 mW. Our results suggest that the Bi2Te3 can work as a promising mode locker for ultrafast lasers, while PVA is an excellent host for fabricating high-performance film-based saturable absorbers.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (11)

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Smirnov, S. Kobtsev, and S. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 1058–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Yin, B. Zhang, W. Yang, S. Chen, and J. Hou, “Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4259–4262 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu and F. W. Wise, “Recent advances in fibre lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 875–882 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

L. M. Zhao, A. C. Bartnik, Q. Q. Tai, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 8  nJ pulses from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1942–1944 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

A. B. Khanikaev, S. H. Mousavi, W. K. Tse, M. Kargarian, A. H. MacDonald, and G. Shvets, “Photonic topological insulators,” Nat. Mater. 12, 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

D. Mao and H. Lu, “Formation and evolution of passively mode-locked fiber soliton lasers operating in a dual-wavelength regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2819–2826 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12, 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, X. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 20992–20997 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. X. Song, and Y. X. Gao, “Sideband controllable soliton all-fiber ring laser passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 582–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

Bao, Q.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartnik, A. C.

Basko, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernard, F.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boschetto, D.

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12, 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12, 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Curley, P.

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y. X.

Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. X. Song, and Y. X. Gao, “Sideband controllable soliton all-fiber ring laser passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 582–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Gorza, S. P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Grodecki, K.

Hajlaoui, M.

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D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

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D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 134–138 (2011).
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D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

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D. Mao, X. M. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2619–2621 (2012).
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D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 134–138 (2011).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
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Sun, Z.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Tang, Y.

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

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A. B. Khanikaev, S. H. Mousavi, W. K. Tse, M. Kargarian, A. H. MacDonald, and G. Shvets, “Photonic topological insulators,” Nat. Mater. 12, 233–239 (2013).
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Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055107 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Wang, F.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

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D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Wang, L. R.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 134–138 (2011).
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X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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White, I.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

Xiang, N.

Xiang, Y.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Xu and F. W. Wise, “Recent advances in fibre lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 875–882 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Yang, C. Y.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yin, K.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Yu, X.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Yun, L.

Zeng, C.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

Zhao, C.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, N.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1101107 (2014).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 77–83 (2013).

Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. X. Song, and Y. X. Gao, “Sideband controllable soliton all-fiber ring laser passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 582–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12, 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. B. Khanikaev, S. H. Mousavi, W. K. Tse, M. Kargarian, A. H. MacDonald, and G. Shvets, “Photonic topological insulators,” Nat. Mater. 12, 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu and F. W. Wise, “Recent advances in fibre lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 875–882 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

L. Yun, X. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 20992–20997 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Smirnov, S. Kobtsev, and S. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 1058–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
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M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22, 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (4)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3233 (2013).

Other (1)

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Scanning electron microscopy image of Bi 2 Te 3 nanosheets, (b)  Bi 2 Te 3 isopropyl alcohol solutions, (c)  Bi 2 Te 3 –PVA film, where the top and bottom films are prepared by the first and second methods, respectively, and (d)  Bi 2 Te 3 –PVA film attached to the facet of a fiber connector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Absorption spectra of Bi 2 Te 3 –PVA and pure PVA films, where the vertical olive line illustrates the spectral gain region of the EDF, (b) nonlinear absorption characterization of the Bi 2 Te 3 –PVA SA. The solid curve is fitted from the experimental data (circle symbols).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the fiber laser with Bi 2 Te 3 as a mode locker. LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PI-ISO, polarization insensitive isolator. The SA is achieved by sandwiching the Bi 2 Te 3 –PVA film between two fiber ferrules, as demonstrated in the inset.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Spectrum, (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) oscilloscope trace, and (d) RF spectrum of the pulse. The SA is fabricated by dispersing the Bi 2 Te 3 into PVA (first method).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Spectrum and (b) autocorrelation trace of the pulse. Herein, the SA is formed by directly dropping the Bi 2 Te 3 solution on the PVA film (second method).

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