Abstract

Pump-probe differential reflection and transmission spectroscopy is a very effective tool to study the nonequilibrium carrier dynamics of graphene. The reported sign of differential reflection from graphene is not explicitly explained and not consistent. Here, we study the differential reflection and transmission signals of graphene on a dielectric substrate. The results reveal the sign of differential reflection changes with the incident direction of the probe beam with respect to the substrate. The obtained theory can be applied to predict the differential signals of other two-dimensional materials placed on various dielectric substrates.

© 2015 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (9)

S. F. Shi, T. T. Tang, B. Zeng, L. Ju, Q. Zhou, A. Zettl, and F. Wang, “Controlling graphene ultrafast hot carrier response from metal-like to semiconductor-like by electrostatic gating,” Nano Lett. 14, 1578–1582 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Svintsov, V. Ryzhii, A. Satou, T. Otsuji, and V. Vyurkov, “Carrier-carrier scattering and negative dynamic conductivity in pumped graphene,” Opt. Express 22, 19873–19886 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Sun and M. W. Wu, “Negative differential transmission in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 235422 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Leandro, M. Kin Fai, A. H. C. Neto, N. M. R. Peres, and F. H. Tony, “Observation of intra- and inter-band transitions in the transient optical response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 015009 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, and A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, J. W. Liu, K. P. Loh, J. Z. Wu, and H. Zhao, “Spatially resolved pump-probe study of single-layer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 708–716 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Shang, S. Yan, C. Cong, H.-S. Tan, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Probing near Dirac point electron–phonon interaction in graphene,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1713–1722 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Huang, B. Gao, G. Hartland, M. Kelly, and H. L. Xing, “Ultrafast relaxation of hot optical phonons in monolayer and multilayer graphene on different substrates,” Surf. Sci. 605, 1657–1661 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Weber, V. E. Calado, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Optical constants of graphene measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091904 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

X. Wang, M. Zhao, and D. D. Nolte, “Optical contrast and clarity of graphene on an arbitrary substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 081102 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. W. Newson, J. Dean, B. Schmidt, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast carrier kinetics in exfoliated graphene and thin graphite films,” Opt. Express 17, 2326–2333 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anissimova, S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Bellus, M. Z.

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonn, M.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Borini, S.

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Breusing, M.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brida, D.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bruna, M.

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cacho, C.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, and A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calado, V. E.

J. W. Weber, V. E. Calado, and M. C. M. van de Sanden, “Optical constants of graphene measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cavalleri, A.

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, and A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ceballos, F.

Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

Centeno, A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandrashekhar, M.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chapman, R.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-D.

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.-M.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H.-Y.

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chung, T.-F.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cilento, F.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Comfort, E. S.

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cong, C.

Cong, C. X.

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Crepaldi, A.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, Q.

Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawlaty, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dean, J.

Deng, Z.-C.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diebold, A. C.

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, T.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fromm, F.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, B.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Huang, B. Gao, G. Hartland, M. Kelly, and H. L. Xing, “Ultrafast relaxation of hot optical phonons in monolayer and multilayer graphene on different substrates,” Surf. Sci. 605, 1657–1661 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

George, P. A.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gierz, I.

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, and A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Göttfert, F.

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grioni, M.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

J. Shang, S. Yan, C. Cong, H.-S. Tan, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Probing near Dirac point electron–phonon interaction in graphene,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1713–1722 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hartland, G.

L. B. Huang, B. Gao, G. Hartland, M. Kelly, and H. L. Xing, “Ultrafast relaxation of hot optical phonons in monolayer and multilayer graphene on different substrates,” Surf. Sci. 605, 1657–1661 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, D.

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, J.

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Helm, M.

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, P.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. B.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Huang, B. Gao, G. Hartland, M. Kelly, and H. L. Xing, “Ultrafast relaxation of hot optical phonons in monolayer and multilayer graphene on different substrates,” Surf. Sci. 605, 1657–1661 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hupalo, M.

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jensen, S. A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johannsen, J. C.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

S. F. Shi, T. T. Tang, B. Zeng, L. Ju, Q. Zhou, A. Zettl, and F. Wang, “Controlling graphene ultrafast hot carrier response from metal-like to semiconductor-like by electrostatic gating,” Nano Lett. 14, 1578–1582 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kadi, F.

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamineni, V. K.

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelly, M.

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. L. Xing, and L. B. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 3184–3189 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Huang, B. Gao, G. Hartland, M. Kelly, and H. L. Xing, “Ultrafast relaxation of hot optical phonons in monolayer and multilayer graphene on different substrates,” Surf. Sci. 605, 1657–1661 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kin Fai, M.

M. M. Leandro, M. Kin Fai, A. H. C. Neto, N. M. R. Peres, and F. H. Tony, “Observation of intra- and inter-band transitions in the transient optical response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 015009 (2013).
[Crossref]

King, P. D. C.

S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knorr, A.

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Köhler, A.

I. Gierz, J. C. Petersen, M. Mitrano, C. Cacho, I. C. E. Turcu, E. Springate, A. Stöhr, A. Köhler, U. Starke, and A. Cavalleri, “Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 12, 1119–1124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kong, X.-T.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koppens, F. H. L.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuehn, S.

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, T.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leandro, M. M.

M. M. Leandro, M. Kin Fai, A. H. C. Neto, N. M. R. Peres, and F. H. Tony, “Observation of intra- and inter-band transitions in the transient optical response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15, 015009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. U.

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levitov, L. S.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Z. Shang, T. Yu, J. Y. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene,” ACS Nano 5, 3278–3283 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. W.

Liu, Z.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.-B.

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loh, K.

Loh, K. P.

Lombardo, A.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lui, C. H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. Q.

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.-P.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Malic, E.

F. Kadi, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, “Microscopic description of intraband absorption in graphene: the occurrence of transient negative differential transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035502 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mammadov, S.

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T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
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Zhang, T.

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
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N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
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Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, J. W. Liu, K. P. Loh, J. Z. Wu, and H. Zhao, “Spatially resolved pump-probe study of single-layer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 708–716 (2012).
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Zhao, L.

Zhao, M.

X. Wang, M. Zhao, and D. D. Nolte, “Optical contrast and clarity of graphene on an arbitrary substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 081102 (2009).
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Zhao, X.

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.-Y.

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
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Zhou, Q.

S. F. Shi, T. T. Tang, B. Zeng, L. Ju, Q. Zhou, A. Zettl, and F. Wang, “Controlling graphene ultrafast hot carrier response from metal-like to semiconductor-like by electrostatic gating,” Nano Lett. 14, 1578–1582 (2014).
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Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
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K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9, 248–252 (2013).
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ACS Nano (2)

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Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, N. Kumar, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption microscopy of monolayer and bulk WSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 2970–2976 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

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X. Wang, M. Zhao, and D. D. Nolte, “Optical contrast and clarity of graphene on an arbitrary substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 081102 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Shang, Z. Q. Luo, C. X. Cong, J. Y. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 163103 (2010).
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[Crossref]

F. J. Nelson, V. K. Kamineni, T. Zhang, E. S. Comfort, J. U. Lee, and A. C. Diebold, “Optical properties of large-area polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Liu, Z.-C. Deng, X.-T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, T.-F. Chung, H.-M. Cheng, Y. P. Chen, and T. Lai, “Diversity of ultrafast hot-carrier-induced dynamics and striking sub-femtosecond hot-carrier scattering times in graphene,” Carbon 72, 402–409 (2014).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Chen, H. Li, L.-P. Ma, W. Ren, J.-Y. Zhou, H.-M. Cheng, and T. Lai, “Ultrafast linear dichroism-like absorption dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 203701 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (4)

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S. F. Shi, T. T. Tang, B. Zeng, L. Ju, Q. Zhou, A. Zettl, and F. Wang, “Controlling graphene ultrafast hot carrier response from metal-like to semiconductor-like by electrostatic gating,” Nano Lett. 14, 1578–1582 (2014).
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H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
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Nanoscale (1)

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Valley and spin dynamics in MoSe2 two-dimensional crystals,” Nanoscale 6, 12690–12695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (6)

X.-Q. Yan, J. Yao, Z.-B. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-D. Chen, C. Gao, W. Xin, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Evolution of anisotropic-to-isotropic photoexcited carrier distribution in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 134308 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 153410 (2011).
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[Crossref]

R. Wang, B. A. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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S. Ulstrup, J. C. Johannsen, F. Cilento, J. A. Miwa, A. Crepaldi, M. Zacchigna, C. Cacho, R. Chapman, E. Springate, S. Mammadov, F. Fromm, C. Raidel, T. Seyller, F. Parmigiani, M. Grioni, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast dynamics of massive Dirac fermions in bilayer graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257401 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167401 (2012).
[Crossref]

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“Fabry–Perot. interferometer,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabry%E2%80%93P%C3%A9rot_interferometer .

“Coherence length,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherence_length .

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Scheme of pump-probe measurement in graphene placed on dielectric substrate; opposite incident direction of probe beam is depicted. Case 1: from graphene to substrate; Case 2: from substrate to graphene. (b) Generalized multilayer structure model.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Multiple reflections and calculation of the reflectance as well as transmittance when an ultrashort probe pulse is normally incident into optically excited graphene on substrate. In order to guide the eyes, the reflected and transmitted subpulses are artificially shifted upward. The red dot is used to indicate that the extinction coefficient of graphene is changed by optical pumping, and the blue dots indicate that the pump-induced Δ κ nearly vanishes (i.e., Δ κ 0 ) due to carrier relaxation. The incident beam is assumed to have an intensity of one; the intensity ratio of each reflected/transmitted subpulse to the incident pulse is corresponding marked. For simplicity, substitutions are used in the figure. For Layer2 a 0 = R 2 ( n a , n s ) = R 2 ( n s , n a ) , b 0 = T 2 ( n a , n s ) = T 2 ( n s , n a ) ; for Layer3 without extinction coefficient change ( Δ κ = 0 ), a = R 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) , x = R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) , b = T 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) = T 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ; for Layer3 with extinction coefficient change, a = R 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) , x = R 3 ( n s , n g , pump , n a ) , and b = T 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) = T 3 ( n s , n g , pump , n a ) . If there is no optical pumping in graphene, the extinction coefficient of graphene is n g = n 0 + i κ for all these multiple reflections, and the intensity ratio of each reflected/transmitted subpulse should change.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Δ R / R and Δ T / T of graphene on quartz versus Δ κ / κ for (a) Case 1 and (b) Case 2. The dashed lines are calculated based on the assumption that the Δ κ does not relax with time (i.e., identical Δ κ for these multiple reflections at the interface with graphene). Inserts: zoomed-in view of the overlapped lines.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Time-resolved pump-probe differential signals versus delay time for both cases. Solid lines denote the theoretical results ( Δ k 0 was randomly set to be 0.32 ), while circles and squares denote the experimental results. The experiment data is scaled to match the theoretical curves. Owing to the sign of differential signals is concerned here, the pump fluence in each measurement is randomly selected. The pump fluence is about (a) 1.2, (b) 1.9, (c) 2.9, and (d)  1.72 mJ / cm 2 .

Equations (39)

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H x z H z x + i ω ε E y = 0 ,
E y z + i ω μ H x = 0 ,
E y x i ω μ H z = 0 .
E y = ( A I e i k I z z + A R e i k I z z ) e i k x x for z a 0 = 0 ,
E y = ( P i e i k i z ( z a i 1 ) + Q i e i k i z ( z a i ) ) e i k x x for a i 1 z a i ( i = 1 , 2 , , l ) ,
E y = A T e i k T z ( z a l ) e i k x x for z a l .
H x = 1 i ω μ E y z ,
H z = k x ω μ E y .
{ A I + A R = ( P 1 + Q 1 e i k 1 z d 1 ) k I z μ I ( A I A R ) = k 1 z μ 1 ( P 1 Q 1 e i k 1 z d 1 ) ,
{ P i e i k i z d i + Q i = P i + 1 e i k i + 1 , z d i + 1 + Q i + 1 k i z μ i ( P i e i k i z d i Q i ) = k i + 1 , z μ i + 1 ( P i + 1 e i k i + 1 , z d i + 1 Q i + 1 ) ,
{ P l e i k l z d l + Q l = A T k l z μ l ( P l e i k l z d l Q l ) = k T z μ T A T .
[ A I A R ] = m 0 [ P 1 Q 1 ] ,
[ P i Q i ] = m i [ P i + 1 Q i + 1 ] ,
[ P l Q l ] = m l A T ,
m 0 = 1 2 [ 1 + K 1 I Γ I 1 ( 1 K 1 I Γ I 1 ) e i β 1 1 K 1 I Γ I 1 ( 1 + K 1 I Γ I 1 ) e i β 1 ] ,
m i = 1 2 [ ( 1 + K i + 1 , i Γ i , i + 1 ) e i β i ( 1 K i + 1 , i Γ i , i + 1 ) e i β i + 1 e i β i 1 K i + 1 , i Γ i , i + 1 ( 1 + K i + 1 , i Γ i , i + 1 ) e i β i + 1 ] ,
m l = 1 2 [ ( 1 + K T l Γ l T ) e i β l 1 K T l Γ l T ] .
[ A I A R ] = M A T ,
M = [ M 1 M 2 ] = i = 0 l m i .
R = | A R A I | 2 = | r | 2 ,
T = μ I μ T R ( k T z ) k I z | A T A I | 2 = μ I μ T R ( k T z ) k I z | t | 2 .
R 2 ( n I , n T ) = | r | 2 = | n I n T n I + n T | 2 ,
T 2 ( n I , n T ) = n T n I | t | 2 = n T n I | 2 n I n I + n T | 2 .
R 3 ( n I , n 1 , n T ) = | r | 2 = | r I 1 + r 1 T e i 2 β 1 1 + r I 1 r 1 T e i 2 β 1 | 2 ,
T 3 ( n I , n 1 , n T ) = n T n I | t | 2 = n T n I | t I 1 t 1 T e i β 1 1 + r I 1 r 1 T e i 2 β 1 | 2 .
R 4 ( n a , n g , n s , n a ) = R 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) + R 2 ( n a , n s ) T 3 2 ( n a , n g , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ,
T 4 ( n a , n g , n s , n a ) = T 2 ( n a , n s ) T 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) .
R 4 ( n a , n s , n g , n a ) = R 2 ( n a , n s ) + R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) T 2 2 ( n a , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ,
T 4 ( n a , n s , n g , n a ) = T 2 ( n a , n s ) T 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ,
R 4 ( n a , n g , pump , n s , n a ) = R 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) + R 2 ( n a , n s ) T 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) T 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ,
T 4 ( n a , n g , pump , n s , n a ) = T 2 ( n a , n s ) T 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) .
R 4 ( n a , n s , n g , pump , n a ) = R 2 ( n a , n s ) + R 3 ( n s , n g , pump , n a ) T 2 2 ( n a , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ,
T 4 ( n a , n s , n g , pump , n a ) = T 2 ( n a , n s ) × [ T 3 ( n a , n g , pump , n s ) + R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , pump , n a ) T 3 ( n a , n g , n s ) 1 R 2 ( n a , n s ) R 3 ( n s , n g , n a ) ] ,
Δ R ( t delay ) / R = R 4 ( n a , n g , pump , n s , n a ) / R 4 ( n a , n g , n s , n a ) 1 ,
Δ T ( t delay ) / T = T 4 ( n a , n g , pump , n s , n a ) / T 4 ( n a , n g , n s , n a ) 1 .
Δ R ( t delay ) / R = R 4 ( n a , n s , n g , pump , n a ) / R 4 ( n a , n s , n g , n a ) 1 ,
Δ T ( t delay ) / T = T 4 ( n a , n s , n g , pump , n a ) / T 4 ( n a , n s , n g , n a ) 1 .
( Δ R ( t ) / R ) p p = 2 ln 2 π τ FWHM [ Δ R ( t ) R * f ( t ) ] ,
( Δ T ( t ) / T ) p p = 2 ln 2 π τ FWHM [ Δ T ( t ) T * f ( t ) ] ,

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