Abstract

Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) has been a promising candidate in visible light communications (VLC) due to its improvement in power efficiency and reduction of nonlinearity based on previous simulation analysis. In this paper, for the first time as far as we know, we experimentally verify that ACO-OFDM would be an efficient scheme to improve the performance of a gigabit wavelength division multiplexing VLC system. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the advantages of ACO-OFDM can be attributed to the reduction of inter-carrier interference caused by signal–signal beating noise. An aggregate data rate of 1.05Gb/s is successfully achieved over 30 cm transmission below the 7% forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×103. The experimental results show that ACO-OFDM can outperform DC-biased optical OFDM by BER performance of 1.5 dB at the same data rate and 4 dB at the same bandwidth, which clearly demonstrates the benefit and feasibility of ACO-OFDM.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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  1. D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21, 1203–1208 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3512–3518 (2010).
  4. D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 620–628 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Dimitrov and H. Haas, “On the clipping noise in an ACO-OFDM optical wireless communication system,” in 2010 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2010).
  7. X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343–345 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. H. Azhar and D. O’Brien, “Experimental comparisons of optical OFDM approaches in visible light communications,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1076–1080.
  11. S. D. Dissanayake and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1063–1072 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Sheih and I. Djordjevic, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Optical Communications (Academic, 2009), Chap. 7.

2014 (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

S. D. Dissanayake and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1063–1072 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Azhar, A. H.

A. H. Azhar and D. O’Brien, “Experimental comparisons of optical OFDM approaches in visible light communications,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1076–1080.

Chi, N.

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, S.

S. Dimitrov and H. Haas, “On the clipping noise in an ACO-OFDM optical wireless communication system,” in 2010 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2010).

Dissanayake, S. D.

Djordjevic, I.

W. Sheih and I. Djordjevic, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Optical Communications (Academic, 2009), Chap. 7.

Elgala, H.

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Green, R. J.

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 620–628 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Dimitrov and H. Haas, “On the clipping noise in an ACO-OFDM optical wireless communication system,” in 2010 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2010).

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Higgins, M. D.

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jungnickel, V.

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kottke, C.

Langer, K.

Lee, K.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

Minh, H. L.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nerreter, S.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. H. Azhar and D. O’Brien, “Experimental comparisons of optical OFDM approaches in visible light communications,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1076–1080.

Oh, Y.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shang, H.

Sheih, W.

W. Sheih and I. Djordjevic, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Optical Communications (Academic, 2009), Chap. 7.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vucic, J.

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “513  Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3512–3518 (2010).

Walewski, J. W.

Wang, Y.

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zeng, L.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, and M. D. Higgins, “Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748–751 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, “On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799–809 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Dimitrov and H. Haas, “On the clipping noise in an ACO-OFDM optical wireless communication system,” in 2010 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2010).

A. H. Azhar and D. O’Brien, “Experimental comparisons of optical OFDM approaches in visible light communications,” in IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1076–1080.

W. Sheih and I. Djordjevic, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Optical Communications (Academic, 2009), Chap. 7.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram and experimental setup of the VLC system based on ACO-OFDM.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. ICIs of ACO- and DCO-OFDM.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Electrical spectra of the red chip (a) w/o pre-eq and (b) w/pre-eq.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) BER versus bias voltage of red chip. (b) BER versus input power of red chip.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) BER versus different numbers of subcarriers. (b) BER versus modulation orders.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BER versus transmission distance of (a) red chip, (b) green chip, and (c) blue chip.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. BER versus transmission distance at the aggregated rate.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S(t)=I(t)cos(2πfRFt)Q(t)sin(2πfRFt).
s(t)=ej2πf0t(1+αej2πfRFt·sB(t)),
sB(t)=k=0N1ckej2πfkt.
I(t)=μ|s(t)|2=μ|1+2αej2πfRFt·sB(t)+(αej2πfRFt·sB(t))2|=μ+2μαRe{ej2πfRFt·k=0N1ckej2πfkt}+μα2·k1=0N1k2=0N1ck1ck2*ej2π(fk1fk2)t,

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