Abstract

In order to achieve small size, light weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, it is desirable to replace bulky coaxial cables with optical fiber in advanced radar front-ends. Such applications require a large dynamic range that is beyond the reach of conventional intensity modulation–direct detection fiber-optic links. A coherent fiber-optic link employing an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) phase demodulator has been proposed as a solution to this problem. The challenge is the practical realization of the OPLL demodulator that satisfies the stringent loop delay requirement. A novel attenuation counterpropagating (ACP) OPLL concept has been proposed and demonstrated as a solution. In this paper we review the recent progress in realizing chip-scale ACP-OPLL devices. In particular, we focus on the latest measurement results achieved using a hybrid integrated ACP-OPLL, as well as the design and performance potential of a monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL photonic integrated circuit.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.
  2. J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.
  3. C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.
  7. G. Betts, “Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642–2649 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li and P. Herczfeld, “Coherent PM optical link employing ACP-PPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1086–1094 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.
  10. Y. Li and P. R. Herezfeld, “Novel attenuation-counter-propagating phase modulator for highly linear fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3709–3718 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.
  14. Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Betts, “Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642–2649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E. I.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.

Betts, G.

G. Betts, “Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642–2649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, A.

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Bridges, W. B.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-S.

S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.

Coldren, L.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Cox, C. H.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.

Demiguel, S.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

DenBaars, S. P.

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Garner, S.

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.-H.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Herczfeld, P.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and P. Herczfeld, “Coherent PM optical link employing ACP-PPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1086–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herezfeld, P. R.

Jalali, B.

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L. A.

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Jong-Heon, K.

C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jong-Sik, L.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Jongsup, Y.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Juodawlkis, P. W.

Klamkin, J.

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Kyoung-Joon, C.

C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Lee, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.

Li, N.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

Li, X.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and P. Herczfeld, “Coherent PM optical link employing ACP-PPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1086–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and P. R. Herezfeld, “Novel attenuation-counter-propagating phase modulator for highly linear fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3709–3718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madison, S. M.

Ramaswamy, A.

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Klamkin, L. A. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated coherent receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 40–41.

Renyuan, W.

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, J. Klamkin, S. M. Madison, P. W. Juodawlkis, P. Herczfeld, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delay of waveguide photodetector,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ristic, S.

Y. Li, W. Renyuan, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-Based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sangwook, N.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Schaffner, J. H.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seung-Ho, H.

S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.

Stapleton, S. P.

C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, and W. Steier, “Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sungchoon, K.

J.-H. Han, D.-H. Lee, N. Sangwook, L. Jong-Sik, Y. Jongsup, and K. Sungchoon, “Post-distortion linearizer for multicarrier power amplifiers using a fifth-order error signal generator,” in Proceedings of 2001 Asia–Pacific Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2001), pp. 272–275.

Tulchinsky, D.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

Wang, R.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. Bowers, and P. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, Y. Li, R. Wang, S. Jin, P. Herczfeld, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of high linearity attenuated counter-propagating optical phase-locked loop coherent receiver,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1090–1092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wan-Jong, K.

C. Kyoung-Joon, K. Wan-Jong, K. Jong-Heon, and S. P. Stapleton, “Linearity optimization of a high power Doherty amplifier based on post-distortion compensation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 748–750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K.

X. Li, N. Li, X. Zheng, S. Demiguel, J. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. Williams, “High-speed high-saturation-current InP/In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode with partially depleted absorber,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 338–339.

Yong-Sub, L.

S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.

Yoon-Ha, J.

S.-Y. Lee, L. Yong-Sub, H. Seung-Ho, H.-S. Choi, and J. Yoon-Ha, “Independently controllable 3rd- and 5th-order analog predistortion linearizer for RF power amplifier in GSM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2004), pp. 146–149.

Yu-Chia, C.

J. Klamkin, C. Yu-Chia, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Output saturation and linearity of waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 354–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

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Figures (26)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PM RF/photonic link with an ACP-OPLL phase demodulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ACP phase modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

System model for a PM RF/photonic link.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SFDR as a function of ϕ IP 3 and the photocurrent per photodetector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ACP-OPLL delay margin versus open loop gain and bandwidth.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of a hybrid integrated ACP-OPLL.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BPD of the hybrid ACP-OPLL.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ACP-OPLL experiment setup.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured ACP-OPLL OIP3 as a function of photocurrent.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Output IMD: (a) output of an IM–direct detection (IM-DD) link with a MZ intensity modulator and (b) measured output spectrum of a hybrid ACP-OPLL in an identical modulation index condition.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

SFDR measurements: (a) 50 MHz; (b) 100 MHz; (c) 200 MHz; (d) 300 MHz.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Schematic of a monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

MQW phase modulator design.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Push–pull ACP phase modulator pair: (a) top view of a modulator section and (b) modulator cross section.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

(a) HFSS model and (b) simulated RF reflection from the modulator connection stub.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Phase modulator response. (a) Amplitude response and (b) phase response.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Balanced counterpropagating waveguide photodetector pair.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Optical field propagation inside a waveguide photodetector.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Frequency response of the BPD voltage output (a) with 50 Ω load impedance, (b) with 300 Ω load impedance.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Simulated performance of the 2 × 2 MMI 3 dB coupler (217 μm long and 7 μm wide).

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

ACP-OPLL PIC.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Simulated SFDR of the ACP-OPLL PIC with 50 Ω photodetector load impedance.

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Simulated NF of the ACP-OPLL PIC with 50 Ω photodetector load impedance.

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

ACP-OPLL phase margin versus photocurrent, assuming 50 Ω photodetector load impedance.

Fig. 25.
Fig. 25.

Microscope image of ACP-OPLL PICs bonded on an AlN subcarrier.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 26.

Two-tone RF input at 200 MHz: (a) output spectrum from the IM-DD link and (b) output spectrum of the ACP-OPLL.

Equations (8)

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δ I shot = 2 I pd · e ,
G link = ( β TX / β ACP ) · G o / ( 1 + G o ) ,
G o ( j ω ) = 2 · β ACP · R pd · Z pd · P opt · e j ω τ d .
NF = 10 log 10 [ 1 + e · β TX 2 / ( I pd · Z TX · K T ) ] ,
SFDR = 40 3 log 10 | ϕ IP 3 / e / I pd | ,
ϕ IP 3 = min { ϕ IP 3 _ DM , ϕ IP 3 _ PM } ,
ϕ IP 3 _ PM = 4 · | G ( ω 0 ) | 2 · | 1 + G ( ω 0 ) | ,
ϕ IP 3 _ PM = ϕ ˜ IP 3 _ PM · L ,

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