Abstract

A novel method for accurately measuring chromatic dispersion of optical fibers is proposed based on the use of chirped intensity-modulated signals. Unlike the conventional method, the proposed method utilizes the configurable transfer function of optical fibers caused by the residual chirp of intensity modulation, which not only eliminates the chirp error but also improves the measurement range through adjusting the chirp parameter of the intensity modulator. Our method is applicable for measuring both the magnitude and sign of chromatic dispersion of optical fibers or other dispersive devices at different operating wavelengths by using a vector network analyzer.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Neumann, R. Herschel, T. Schuster, D. Plettemeier, and C. Schaffer, “Dispersion estimation via vestigial sideband filtering using an optical delay line filter,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 155–161 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Abedin, “Rapid, cost-effective measurement of chromatic dispersion of optical fibre over 1440–1625  nm using Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 41, 469–471 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yamamoto, M. Takayoshi, S. Taiji, K. Kenji, T. Shigeru, and T. Makoto, “Group velocity dispersion measurement method using sinusoidally phase-modulated continuous wave light based on cyclic nature of optical waveform change by group velocity dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5148–5156 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. A. Neto, D. Erasme, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, Q. Deniel, F. Traore, T. Anfray, R. Hmadou, and C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, “Simple estimation of fiber dispersion and laser chirp parameters using the downhill simplex fitting algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 334–342 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wang and K. Petermann, “Small signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 96–100 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, “Chirp characterization of external modulators with finite extinction ratio using linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 646–648 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

N. Neumann, R. Herschel, T. Schuster, D. Plettemeier, and C. Schaffer, “Dispersion estimation via vestigial sideband filtering using an optical delay line filter,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2005 (1)

K. S. Abedin, “Rapid, cost-effective measurement of chromatic dispersion of optical fibre over 1440–1625  nm using Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 41, 469–471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Wang and K. Petermann, “Small signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

K. S. Abedin, “Rapid, cost-effective measurement of chromatic dispersion of optical fibre over 1440–1625  nm using Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 41, 469–471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anfray, T.

Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.

Bodtker, E.

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chanclou, P.

Christensen, B.

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deniel, Q.

Dennis, T.

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, “Chirp characterization of external modulators with finite extinction ratio using linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 646–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erasme, D.

Fujise, M.

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Genay, N.

Gliese, U.

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

J. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herschel, R.

Hmadou, R.

Iwamoto, Y.

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, K.-S.

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.-S.

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kenji, K.

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwazuru, M.

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Makoto, T.

Mark, J.

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neto, L. A.

Neumann, N.

Nielsen, T. N.

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norskov, S.

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nunokawa, M.

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-K.

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

J. Wang and K. Petermann, “Small signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plettemeier, D.

Provost, J.

J. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

Schuster, T.

Shigeru, T.

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taiji, S.

Takayoshi, M.

Traore, F.

Wang, J.

J. Wang and K. Petermann, “Small signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. A.

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, “Chirp characterization of external modulators with finite extinction ratio using linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 646–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. S. Abedin, “Rapid, cost-effective measurement of chromatic dispersion of optical fibre over 1440–1625  nm using Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 41, 469–471 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Christensen, J. Mark, G. Jacobsen, and E. Bodtker, “Simple dispersion measurement technique with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 29, 132–134 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K.-S. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D.-S. Kang, and J.-K. Pan, “Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1145–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, “Chirp characterization of external modulators with finite extinction ratio using linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 646–648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (1)

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 44, 1716–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Wang and K. Petermann, “Small signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 96–100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujise, M. Kuwazuru, M. Nunokawa, and Y. Iwamoto, “Highly accurate long-span chromatic dispersion measurement system by a new phase-shift technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 751–758 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Neto, D. Erasme, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, Q. Deniel, F. Traore, T. Anfray, R. Hmadou, and C. Aupetit-Berthelemot, “Simple estimation of fiber dispersion and laser chirp parameters using the downhill simplex fitting algorithm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 334–342 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed method. Vb, bias voltage; TLD, wavelength tunable laser diode; PC, polarization controller; IM, intensity modulator; DUT, device under test; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Minimum measurable dispersion as a function of the chirp parameter (a) for the normal dispersion case and (b) for the anomalous dispersion case.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transfer function for a 25.4 km long SMF at different bias voltages (Vb) of the intensity modulator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transfer function of a 6.1 km long SMF at different bias voltages (Vb) of the intensity modulator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured chromatic dispersion of a 81.5 km long SMF at different operating wavelengths.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Error transfer factor at the associated frequency as a function of chirp parameter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Uncertainty of the Fiber Dispersion Resulting from the Measured Transfer Functiona

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ei(f,t)=I0(1+mcos(2πft))·expj(2πctλ+α2mcos(2πft))
H(f)=|cosπλ2DTf2cαsinπλ2DTf2c|,
fu2=cλ2|DT|(u12arctanαπ),(u=1,2,3),
|DT|=cλ2fu2(u12),(u=1,2,3),
|DTminλ2fmax2c|12,(α=0),
|DT|=kcλ2(fu+k2fu2),(u,k=1,2,),
|DTminλ2fmax2c+arctanαπ|32,(α0).
α=cot(πλ2DTf12c).
H(f)=|cosπλ2DTf2ccotπλ2DTf12csinπλ2DTf2c|.
fh=f1/2
H(fh)=|cosπλ2DTfh2ccot2πλ2DTfh2csinπλ2DTfh2c|=|12secπλ2DTfh2c|,
|DT|=cπfh2λ2arcsec[2H(fh)].
|DTminλ2fmax2c+arctanαπ|12.
F=|ΔDTDT/Δf1f1|=2,
U=|ΔDTDT/ΔHH|=|cosθαsinθθ(αcosθ+sinθ)|,θ=πλ2DTf2c.
α=cot(πλ2DTf12c)=cot(2πλ2DTfh2c).
U(fh)=|tan(arccotα2)/(arccotα2)|.

Metrics