Abstract

We report uniaxial tensile strains up to 5.7% along 100 in suspended germanium (Ge) wires on a silicon substrate, measured using Raman spectroscopy. This strain is sufficient to make Ge a direct bandgap semiconductor. Theoretical calculations show that a significant fraction of electrons remain in the indirect conduction valley despite the direct bandgap due to the much larger density of states; however, recombination can nevertheless be dominated by radiative direct bandgap transitions if defects are minimized. We then calculate the theoretical efficiency of direct bandgap Ge LEDs and lasers. These strained Ge wires represent a direct bandgap Group IV semiconductor integrated directly on a silicon platform.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa and K. Wada, “Germanium for silicon photonics,” Thin Solid Films 518, S83–S87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Yi, L. Li, and C. Kim, “Microscale material testing of single crystalline silicon: process effects on surface morphology and tensile strength,” Sens. Actuators A 83, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aniel, F.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balram, K.

Beaudoin, G.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Brongersma, M.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai and R. Camacho-Aguilera, “High n-type doped germanium for electrically pumped Ge laser,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (IPRSN) (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. 5–7.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai and R. Camacho-Aguilera, “High n-type doped germanium for electrically pumped Ge laser,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (IPRSN) (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. 5–7.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Cassan, E.

Chaigneau, M.

Chang, S.-T.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

Cheng, S.-L.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon banotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Claussen, S. A.

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Kersauson, M.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Dumas, D.

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

El Kurdi, M.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Faist, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fidaner, O.

Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Fu, Y.-C.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallacher, K.

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Geiger, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Ghrib, A.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Gollhofer, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Gupta, S.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

Harris, J. S.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

Huang, C.-F.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. C.-Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa and K. Wada, “Germanium for silicon photonics,” Thin Solid Films 518, S83–S87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, J. R.

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Kamins, T. I.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Kapur, P.

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon banotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaschel, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Kasper, E.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Kim, C.

T. Yi, L. Li, and C. Kim, “Microscale material testing of single crystalline silicon: process effects on surface morphology and tensile strength,” Sens. Actuators A 83, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15, 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

Koch, T. L.

Koo, K.-H.

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Performance comparisons between carbon banotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206–3215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Körner, R.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Kozlowski, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lai, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Largeau, L.

Laval, S.

Leadley, D.

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Li, L.

T. Yi, L. Li, and C. Kim, “Microscale material testing of single crystalline silicon: process effects on surface morphology and tensile strength,” Sens. Actuators A 83, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Liu, C. W.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15, 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ly-Gagnon, D.

Marris-Morini, D.

Marshall, A.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

McIntyre, P. C.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15, 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

Miller, D.

Miller, D. A. B.

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Myronov, M.

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Nam, D.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

Nayfeh, A. M.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

Ndong, G.

Nishi, Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Okyay, A. K.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

Osmond, J.

Ossikovski, R.

Pan, D.

Patel, N.

Paul, D.

P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Peng, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Prost, M.

Romagnoli, M.

Roth, J. E.

Roy, A.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

Saraswat, K. C.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Sauvage, S.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photon. Res. 1, 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Schulze, J.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films (in press).

Shambat, G.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Suess, M. J.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7, 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Süess, ETH Zürich (Private Communication, 2013).

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15, 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tasyurek, E.

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

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C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871–1883 (1989).
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P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. Leadley, and D. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.

Vivien, L.

Vu, J.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vulovic, B. M.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

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Y. Ishikawa and K. Wada, “Germanium for silicon photonics,” Thin Solid Films 518, S83–S87 (2010).
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J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15, 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, T. Schroeder, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and B. Tillack, “Tensile strained Ge layers obtained via a Si-CMOS compatible approach,” in International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–2.

Yang, Y.-H.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
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T. Yi, L. Li, and C. Kim, “Microscale material testing of single crystalline silicon: process effects on surface morphology and tensile strength,” Sens. Actuators A 83, 172–178 (2000).
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A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, P. C. McIntyre, and K. C. Saraswat, “Ge on Si by novel heteroepitaxy for high efficiency near infrared photodetection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuU5.

Yu, H.-Y.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550  nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2013).
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IEEE Photon. J.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
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IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorous doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034509 (2012).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
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M. J. Süess, ETH Zürich (Private Communication, 2013).

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vu, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium nanowires inferred from 5.0% uniaxial tensile strain,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2013), Vol. 4, pp. 73–74.

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R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. Bessette, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Electroluminescence of highly doped Ge pnn diodes for Si integrated lasers,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 190–192.

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R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Suess, R. A. Minamisawa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 103–104.

D. S. Sukhdeo, H. Lin, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, J. S. Harris, B. Dutt, and K. C. Saraswat, “Approaches for a viable germanium laser: tensile strain, GeSn alloys, and n-type doping,” in 2013 Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 112–113.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.109.

Y. Cai and R. Camacho-Aguilera, “High n-type doped germanium for electrically pumped Ge laser,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (IPRSN) (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. 5–7.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Direct and indirect bandgaps of Ge as a function of 100 uniaxial tensile strain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a suspended strained Ge wire attached to suspended Ge pads. (b) Zoomed-in SEM of the region indicated in (a). (c) COMSOL simulation of the strain distribution in a suspended Ge wire attached to suspended Ge pads.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Tilted scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a substrate-adhered strained Ge wire and pads. (b) Zoomed-in tilted SEM of the edge of a pad, showing deflection due to stiction. (c) Zoomed-in tilted SEM of the substrate-adhered Ge wire. (d) Zoomed-in titled SEM showing a substrate-adhered Ge wire and pads next to an overhang of suspended Ge.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the Raman peak redshift on the excitation laser power for both suspended and substrate-adhered Ge wires with 4% strain. Both curves are the difference between the wire’s Raman peak location and the Raman peak location of relaxed bulk Ge.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectra for suspended Ge wires with various pad dimensions, showing uniaxial strains from 0.79% to 5.71%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photoluminescence (PL) from suspended Ge wires with various strains.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Theoretically calculated fraction of electrons in the direct valley as a function of 100 uniaxial tensile strain, shown at several temperatures, plotted on a (a) linear scale and (b) logarithmic scale.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical internal quantum efficiency of a Ge LED as a function of strain for various defect-limited minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature (300 K), assuming 1019cm3 n-type doping and 1017cm3 carrier injection.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Theoretically calculated threshold current density for a Ge laser as a function of strain.

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