Abstract

One of the most serious challenges facing exponential performance growth in the information industry is the bandwidth bottleneck in interchip interconnects. We propose a photonics–electronics convergence system in response to this issue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, we fabricated a silicon optical interposer integrated with arrayed laser diodes, spot-size converters, optical splitters, optical modulators, photodetectors, and optical waveguides on a single silicon substrate. Using this system, 20 Gbps error-free data links and a 30Tbps/cm2 bandwidth density were achieved. This bandwidth density is sufficient to meet the interchip interconnect requirements for the late 2010s.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated metal–semiconductor–metal and p-i-n-type Ge photodiodes using Si-capping layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 04CG10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3115–3120 (2010).

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

Arakawa, Y.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated metal–semiconductor–metal and p-i-n-type Ge photodiodes using Si-capping layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 04CG10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Asghari, M.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-k.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H. K.

Cho, M. H.

Chu, T.

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Fujikata, J.

Fujioka, N.

Fujita, T.

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Hatori, N.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Hirayama, N.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, T.

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated metal–semiconductor–metal and p-i-n-type Ge photodiodes using Si-capping layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 04CG10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

Hu, Y.

Hwang, M. S.

Imai, M.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ishitsuka, S.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, M.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3115–3120 (2010).

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

Itabashi, S.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. S.

Jeong, D. K.

Jeong, S. H.

Jones, R.

Joo, J.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H. C.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Kimerling, L. C.

Koka, P.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koshino, K.

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

Lee, J. Y.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

McCracken, M.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Mitchell, J.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

Mohammed, E. M.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

Morito, K.

Nakamura, T.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, M.

Noguchi, Y.

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

Oh, J. H.

Ohtsuka, M.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, D.

Okano, M.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Okayama, H.

Palermo, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, G. S.

Park, H.

Park, J. M.

Park, J. W.

Park, K. S.

Patel, N.

Pinguet, T.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Raj, K.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, E.

Sano, T.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seki, M.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Shimura, D.

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

Sugiyama, A.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

Takahashi, M.

Tanaka, Y.

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Toyama, M.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Urino, Y.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Usuki, T.

Watanabe, T.

Yaegashi, H.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, M.

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

Yamamoto, T.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1329–1336 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, N.

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Okayama, D. Shimura, H. Takahashi, M. Seki, M. Toyama, T. Sano, K. Koshino, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, A. Sugiyama, S. Ishitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, H. Yaegashi, T. Horikawa, and H. Sasaki, “Si wire array waveguide grating with parallel star coupler configuration fabricated by ArF excimer immersion lithography,” Electron. Lett. 49, 410–412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, N. Hirayama, Y. Noguchi, M. Seki, K. Koshino, M. Toyama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “Compact PIN-diode-based silicon modulator using side-wall-grating waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 74–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Fujikata, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Si waveguide-integrated metal–semiconductor–metal and p-i-n-type Ge photodiodes using Si-capping layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 04CG10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

S. H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21, 30163–30174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Integrated GHz silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale modulators and detectors,” Opt. Express 17, 15248–15256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30  Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19, 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19, B159–B165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40  Gb/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19, 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-k. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V•cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, M. McCracken, J. Lexau, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. Mitchell, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “‘Macrochip’ computer systems enabled by silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 2009 Edition, Assembly and Packaging, Table AP2 and AP3, http://www.itrs.net/Links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009Tables_FOCUS_E_ITRS.xls .

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 181–183.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “2.2  pJ/bit operation of hybrid integrated light source on a silicon optical interposer for optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 254–255.

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, and T. Horikawa, “Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits,” in Extended Abstracts of the International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (JSAP, 2012), pp. 530–531.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 171–173.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic cross sections of integration between photonics and electronics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Conceptual model of photonics–electronics convergence system for interchip interconnects.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Core width dependence of the waveguide propagation loss.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic structure and images of the optical modulator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

DC response of the optical modulator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic structure and SEM image of the PIN-PD.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Frequency responses of the PDs.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Microscope image of the 13-channel arrayed LD.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Near field pattern and output intensity of the LD array.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Schematic structure and SEM images of the trident SSC.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Coupling losses of the trident SSC and an inversed taper SSC with various silicon core tip widths.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Coupling losses between the LD and the trident SSC with various alignment deviations in the horizontal and vertical directions.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

I-L characteristics measured without temperature control.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Fabricated silicon optical interposer.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Eye diagram and BERs of PD output at 20 Gbps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Per-Channel Footprints of Optical Components.

Metrics