Abstract

The detection efficiency of a gaseous photomultiplier depends on the photocathode quantum efficiency and the extraction efficiency of photoelectrons into the gas. In this paper we have studied the performance of an UV photon detector with P10 gas in which the extraction efficiency can reach values near to those in vacuum operated devices. Simulations have been done to compare the percentage of photoelectrons backscattered in P10 gas as well as in the widely used neon-based gas mixture. The performance study has been carried out using a single stage thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM). The electron pulses and electron spectrum are recorded under various operating conditions. Secondary effects prevailing in UV photon detectors like photon feedback are discussed and its effect on the electron spectrum under different operating conditions is analyzed.

© 2014 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, 1989).
  18. A. Buzulutksov, “Radiation detectors based on gas electron multipliers,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 50, 287–310 (2007).

2013 (1)

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

2010 (1)

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Chechik and A. Breskin, “Advances in gaseous photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 116–127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Buzulutskov, “Gaseous photodetectors with solid photocathodes,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 424–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Buzulutksov, “Radiation detectors based on gas electron multipliers,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 50, 287–310 (2007).

2006 (1)

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Sauli, “Novel Cherenkov photon detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 553, 18–24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, and R. Chechik, “GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

An, Z.-H.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Azevedo, C. D. R.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baishali, G.

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Balcerzyk, M.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bondar, A.

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boutboul, T.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breskin, A.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Chechik and A. Breskin, “Advances in gaseous photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 116–127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, and R. Chechik, “GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buzulutksov, A.

A. Buzulutksov, “Radiation detectors based on gas electron multipliers,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 50, 287–310 (2007).

Buzulutskov, A.

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, and R. Chechik, “GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buzulutskov, A. F.

A. F. Buzulutskov, “Gaseous photodetectors with solid photocathodes,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 424–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chechik, R.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Chechik and A. Breskin, “Advances in gaseous photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 116–127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, and R. Chechik, “GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, M.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, J. M. F.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Escada, J.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friese, J.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garty, G.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gernhäuser, R.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guedes, G. P.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gunji, S.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kastenmüller, A.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, G. F.

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, 1989).

Koushal, V.

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-B.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Lu, J.-G.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Lyashenko, A. V.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maia, J.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Komor, P.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michaeli, K.

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, J.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mörmann, D.

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, N.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, T.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peskov, V.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishna, V.

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rajanna, K.

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rakhee, K.

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, H.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sauli, F.

F. Sauli, “Novel Cherenkov photon detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 553, 18–24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shalem, C.

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shefer, E.

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shekhtman, L.

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. K.

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, H.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sumiyoshi, T.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tokanai, F.

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.-G.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Yu, B.-X.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Zeitelhack, K.

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.-W.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Zhang, D.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Zheng, Y.-H.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Zheng, Z.-P.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Zhou, L.

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Chin. Phys. C (1)

H.-B. Liu, Y.-H. Zheng, Y.-G. Xie, J.-G. Lu, L. Zhou, B.-X. Yu, A.-W. Zhang, Z.-H. An, Y.-G. Xie, D. Zhang, and Z.-P. Zheng, “Study of the THGEM detector with a reflective CsI photocathode,” Chin. Phys. C 35, 363–367 (2011).

Instrum. Exp. Tech. (1)

A. Buzulutksov, “Radiation detectors based on gas electron multipliers,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 50, 287–310 (2007).

JINST (1)

C. D. R. Azevedo, M. Cortesi, A. V. Lyashenko, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, J. Miyamoto, V. Peskov, J. Escada, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and J. M. F. dos Santos, “Towards THGEM UV-photon detectors for RICH: on single-photon detection efficiency in Ne/CH4 and Ne/CF4,” JINST 5, P01002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A (1)

C. Shalem, R. Chechik, A. Breskin, and K. Michaeli, “Advances in Thick GEM-like gaseous electron multipliers—Part I: atmospheric pressure operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res A 558, 475–489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (11)

H. Rabus, U. Kroth, M. Richter, G. Ulm, J. Friese, R. Gernhäuser, A. Kastenmüller, P. Maier-Komor, and K. Zeitelhack, “Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120–220  nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 438, 94–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Sauli, “Novel Cherenkov photon detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 553, 18–24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mörmann, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, and B. K. Singh, “On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Baishali, V. Radhakrishna, V. Koushal, K. Rakhee, and K. Rajanna, “Study of electron focusing in thick GEM based photon detectors using semitransparent photocathodes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 729, 51–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Chechik and A. Breskin, “Advances in gaseous photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 595, 116–127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, M. Balcerzyk, R. Chechik, G. P. Guedes, J. Maia, and D. Mörmann, “Recent advances in gaseous imaging photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 513, 250–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, T. Boutboul, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, G. Garty, E. Shefer, and B. K. Singh, “Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442, 58–67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Sumiyoshi, F. Tokanai, H. Sugiyama, T. Okada, N. Ohishi, T. Ohmura, H. Sakurai, and S. Gunji, “Development of a gaseous PMT with micro-pattern gas detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639, 121–125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, and R. Chechik, “GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Buzulutskov, A. Breskin, R. Chechik, G. Garty, F. Sauli, and L. Shekhtman, “The GEM photomultiplier operated with noble gas mixtures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 443, 164–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Breskin, A. Buzulutskov, R. Chechik, B. K. Singh, A. Bondar, and L. Shekhtman, “Sealed GEM photomultiplier with a CsI photocathode: ion feedback and ageing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 478, 225–229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Part. Nucl. (1)

A. F. Buzulutskov, “Gaseous photodetectors with solid photocathodes,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 424–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

GARFIELD-Version-9 Program for Simulation of two and three dimensional Drift Chambers, Rob Veenhof, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Wiley, 1989).

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