Abstract

This paper reports on high-performance waveguide-integrated germanium photodiodes for optical communications applications. 200 mm wafers and production tools were used to fabricate the devices. Yields over 97% were obtained for three different compact photodiodes (10×10μm and intrinsic region width of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 μm) within the same batch of three wafers. Those photodiodes exhibit low dark currents under reverse bias with median values of 74, 62, and 61 nA for intrinsic widths of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 μm, respectively, over a full wafer. Responsivities up to 0.78A/W at 1550 nm and zero bias were measured. Zero bias operation is possible for 25 and 40 Gbps with receiver sensitivity estimated to 13.9 and 12.3dBm, respectively.

© 2013 Chinese Laser Press

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2013 (1)

2012 (6)

2011 (5)

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45  GHz CMOS compatible germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, a. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III–V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express 19, 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bracht, S. Schneider, and R. Kube, “Diffusion and doping issues in germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 452–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518, S136–S139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16, 11513–11518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ang, S. Zhu, and M. Yu, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with novel silicon–carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754–756 (2008).

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16, 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, and G. Wohl, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39 GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p–i–n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 622–628 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abstract, A.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

Ahn, D.

Amon, B.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, and M. Yu, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with novel silicon–carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754–756 (2008).

Antoniadis, D. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Augendre, E.

Baets, R.

Barnes, J.-P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A. J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, and G. Wohl, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39 GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Bessette, J. T.

Billon, T.

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Bogumilowicz, Y.

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bordel, D.

Bouville, D.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Bracht, H.

H. Bracht, S. Schneider, and R. Kube, “Diffusion and doping issues in germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 452–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cagnon, J.

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Choi, D.

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
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Chua, K. T.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Chui, C. O.

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claverie, A.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
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Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

Colace, L.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Crozat, P.

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D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Damlencourt, J.-F.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
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J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, M. L.

Davids, P. S.

Deal, M. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

Descos, a.

Dong, P.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16, 11513–11518 (2008).
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G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p–i–n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 622–628 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Fama, S.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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Fisher, M.

Fitzgerald, E. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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Franck, T.

Frey, L.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fulbert, L.

Ge, Y.

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Gopalakrishnan, K.

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, P. B.

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Hagishima, D.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40  Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
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J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Heck, J. M.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

Heck, M. J. R.

Hodge, D.

Holliger, P.

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Hong, C.-Y.

Iii, V.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

Ino, T.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, and G. Wohl, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39 GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Kaiser, R. J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, Y.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kaschel, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

Kasper, E.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U.

Kimerling, L. C.

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518, S136–S139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koffel, S.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

Koyama, M.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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H. Bracht, S. Schneider, and R. Kube, “Diffusion and doping issues in germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 452–457 (2011).
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D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Langdo, T. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, S. J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Leitz, C. W.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Lochtefeld, A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Lorenz, J.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p–i–n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 622–628 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzocchi, V.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melhaoui, L. El

Michel, J.

Miyao, M.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mizushima, I.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Morse, M. M.

Nishi, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518, S136–S139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, A.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Oehme, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, Y.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Papon, A. M.

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

Patel, N.

Peters, J. D.

Pichler, P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, J. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
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Polzer, A.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
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Rasigade, G.

Roelkens, G.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14, 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, G.

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Romagnoli, M.

Rouvière, M.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Rubin, D.

Sadoh, T.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakane, T.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518, S136–S139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Scheiblin, P.

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

H. Bracht, S. Schneider, and R. Kube, “Diffusion and doping issues in germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 452–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, R. F.

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p–i–n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 622–628 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M.

Stankovi, S.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

Starbuck, A. L.

Stemmer, S.

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sysak, M. N.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

Tan, C. S.

Y. H. Tan and C. S. Tan, “Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001) using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 520, 2711–2716 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. M. F.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Tan, Y. H.

Y. H. Tan and C. S. Tan, “Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001) using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 520, 2711–2716 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tatsumura, K.

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toko, K.

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14, 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40  Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40  Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16, 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Watts, M. R.

Werner, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wohl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, and G. Wohl, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39 GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, Y. Z.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Xu, H.

Yin, T.

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, and M. Yu, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with novel silicon–carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754–756 (2008).

Yu, M. B.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Yu, Y.

Zang, H.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

Zheng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, and M. Yu, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with novel silicon–carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754–756 (2008).

Ziebell, M.

Zimmermann, H.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700–3702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, T. Tanaka, Y. Ohta, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Defect-free Ge-on-insulator with (100), (110), and (111) orientations by growth-direction-selected rapid-melting growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Toko, Y. Ohta, T. Sakane, T. Sadoh, I. Mizushima, and M. Miyao, “Single-crystalline (100) Ge networks on insulators by rapid-melting growth along hexagonal mesh-pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 042101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3275–3277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Stankovi, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, A. Abstract, and V. Iii, “Hybrid III–V/Si distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2155–2158 (2012).

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3  dB bandwidth of 49  GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 920–922 (2009).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, and G. Wohl, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39 GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005).

K. Ang, S. Zhu, and M. Yu, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors with novel silicon–carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754–756 (2008).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18 GHz/1 V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1485–1487 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Koike, Y. Kamata, T. Ino, D. Hagishima, K. Tatsumura, M. Koyama, and A. Nishiyama, “Diffusion and activation of n-type dopants in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 023523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p–i–n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 622–628 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274, 90–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Choi, Y. Ge, J. S. Harris, J. Cagnon, and S. Stemmer, “Low surface roughness and threading dislocation density Ge growth on Si (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4273–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

H. Bracht, S. Schneider, and R. Kube, “Diffusion and doping issues in germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 452–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Koffel, R. J. Kaiser, A. J. Bauer, B. Amon, P. Pichler, J. Lorenz, L. Frey, P. Scheiblin, V. Mazzocchi, J.-P. Barnes, and A. Claverie, “Experiments and simulation of the diffusion and activation of the n-type dopants P, As, and Sb implanted into germanium,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 458–461 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, and D. Samara-rubio, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (15)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45  GHz CMOS compatible germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40  Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16, 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40  Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21, 4116–4125 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14, 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, a. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III–V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express 19, 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31  GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15, 13965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16, 11513–11518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518, S136–S139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tan and C. S. Tan, “Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001) using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 520, 2711–2716 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. T. Tsang, ed., Semiconductors and Semimetals, Lightwave Communication Technology, Part D. Photodetectors (Academic, 1985), Vol. 22, pp.  1–451.

J. M. Hartmann, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure—chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,”MRS Proc.809, B4.3.10.1557/PROC-809-B4.3

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Waveguide-coupling configurations: (a) butt coupling and (b) evanescent coupling. PIN junction configuration: (c) lateral and (d) vertical.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption efficiency and device capacitance for evanescent and butt-coupling configurations, assuming intrinsic region width of 1 μm and Ge height of 350 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

BPM simulation of light absorption in the intrinsic region of a lateral PIN photodiode for a 350 nm thick Ge layer in a 10 × 10 μm cavity, butt coupled to a Si waveguide ( 220 nm × 500 nm ). The intrinsic region width is set at 0.5, 0.7, and 1 μm. The inset reports the maximum responsivity for those conditions at 1.55 μm wavelength.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photodiode maximum theoretical 3 dB bandwidth.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic cross-sectional view of the final photodiode structure. Light coming from the waveguide is injected into the intrinsic region of the Ge photodiode perpendicularly to the schematics.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Cross-sectional TEM image of the cavity after Ge epitaxy and CMP steps.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Typical dark current characteristics of photodiodes A, B, and C ( w i = 0.5 , 0.7, and 1 μm, respectively).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Device capacitance as a function of reverse bias. A, B, and C type photodiodes have w i = 0.5 , 0.7, and 1 μm, respectively.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Photodiode frequency response at 3 V bias. For clarity purposes, the curves for photodiodes A and C were artificially shifted by + 3 and 3 dB , respectively. (b)  3 dB opto-electrical bandwidth function of the applied reverse bias for the three photodiodes. A, B, and C type photodiodes have w i = 0.5 , 0.7, and 1 μm, respectively.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

TCAD simulated implantation profiles for the three designed intrinsic region widths, obtained by cross section along the dashed line shown in the inset of the figure.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Theoretical Performances of the PIN Ge Photodiodes

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Table 2. Dark Current Median Values over Full Wafers (373 dies per wafer) for the Three Types of Photodiodes

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Table 3. Best Dark Current and Dark Current Density Values under 1 V Reverse Bias for the Three Wafers and the Three Photodiodes

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Table 4. AC Measured and Extrapolated Results

Equations (9)

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τ tr = l D v drift ,
τ RC = RC ,
C j = ε A l D ,
R dB ( f ) = 20 log 10 ( I photo ( f ) / P opt ( f ) 1 ) ,
BER = 1 2 π Q e 2 x 2 2 d x = 1 2 erfc ( Q 2 ) .
Q = | μ 1 μ 0 | σ 1 + σ 0 ,
P min = 1 R 1 + r 1 r Q i a 2 1 / 2 ,
I Sn = 2 q ( I D + I P ) B ,
I Jn = 4 k B T B R eq ,

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