Abstract

The optical properties of germanium can be tailored by combining strain engineering and n-type doping. In this paper, we review the recent progress that has been reported in the study of germanium light emitters for silicon photonics. We discuss the different approaches that were implemented for strain engineering and the issues associated with n-type doping. We show that compact germanium emitters can be obtained by processing germanium into tensile-strained microdisks.

© 2013 Chinese Laser Press

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

G.-E. Chang and H. H. Cheng, “Optical gain of germanium infrared lasers on different crystal orientations,” J. Phys. D 46, 065103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Kope, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 073707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1502706 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “(Invited) Strain engineering for optical gain in germanium,” ECS Trans. 50, 363–370 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, M. de Kersauson, A. Ghrib, and X. Checoury, “Light emission from strained germanium,” Nat. Photonics 7, 162–162 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sachez-Peez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9, 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Velha, K. F. Gallacher, D. C. Dumas, D. J. Paul, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge light emitting diodes,” ECS Trans. 50, 305–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LEDs on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 2206–2211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Li, R. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Infrared absorption of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Opt. Lett. 38, 652–654 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ossikovski, G. Picardi, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “Raman spectroscopy and polarization: selected case studies,” C. R. Phys. 13, 837–852 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1−x−ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 141908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19, 25866–25872 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
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M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
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A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
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Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced bandgap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044–2046 (2003).
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G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
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G. A. Thomas, E. I. Blount, and M. Capizzi, “Indirect recombination mechanisms in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 702–718 (1979).
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M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “(Invited) Strain engineering for optical gain in germanium,” ECS Trans. 50, 363–370 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
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A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, “Theory of optical gain of Ge-SixGeySn1−x−y quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 249–256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, M. de Kersauson, A. Ghrib, and X. Checoury, “Light emission from strained germanium,” Nat. Photonics 7, 162–162 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Chen, T.-L. Sung, T.-Y. Wu, and F.-P. Shih, “Theoretical model for intravalley and intervalley free-carrier absorption in semiconductor lasers: beyond the classical Drude model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 552–559 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium//silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1−x−ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 141908 (2012).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
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M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023105 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
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M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated dependence of photoinduced carrier density needed to reach transparency at room temperature in n-doped germanium as a function of tensile strain. The germanium doping is 2×1019cm3. The calculation is based on the 30-band k·p formalism that we presented in [16]. The squares account for free-carrier absorption, as reported in [13]. The circles correspond to a calculation that considers the experimental absorption cross section for electrons and holes reported in [20] and a power law dependence as a function of wavelength with an exponent of 2.25 for electrons and 2.43 for holes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission of a Ge/GaAs film normalized by the transmission of a GaAs wafer. Both wafers are double-side polished. The germanium thickness is 930 nm. The doping of the germanium layer is 1019cm3. The germanium absorption is deduced from this normalized transmission. The dashed line corresponds to the modeling of the transmission that accounts for the germanium absorption. (b) Absorption of the germanium film as a function of wavenumber. The inset shows a zoom of the absorption in the 2–25 μm spectral range. The dashed line corresponds to a power fit with a 2.25 exponent (absorptionλ2.25).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of tensile-strained germanium microdisk. (b) Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of an unstrained (bottom) and strained (top) germanium microdisk with a 4 μm diameter. (c) Enlargement of the emission around 2000 nm [48].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) In-plane strain map of the germanium microdisk as deduced from backscattering μ-Raman spectroscopy. (b) Strain profile along the disk diameter. The disk diameter is 9 μm. The figure highlights the sum of the in-plane strain components. In Fig. 1, only one component is considered to describe the strain.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Conduction band profile of a GaAs/Ge/GaAs heterostructure without applied bias. (b) Conduction band profile for a 1.5 V applied bias. The quasi-Fermi levels are indicated by dashed lines.

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