Abstract

We briefly review the development of gain-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and their applications in wavelength conversion to mid-IR, supercontinuum generation, and medicine in recent years. We illustrate the similarities between gain-switching and Q-switching techniques that will provide tools for the design and optimization of the gain-switched fiber lasers. From the nature of the gain-switched fiber lasers, benefits of this kind of lasers to 2-μm region and in-band-pumped (two-level system) laser systems are obvious. Advantages of in-band-pumped 2-μm lasers are discussed and analyzed with a simple numerical simulation in terms of Tm-doped fiber lasers. We also propose the key factors in the development of the gain-switched fiber lasers and predict the future tendency.

© 2013 Chinese Laser Press

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  1. L. A. Zenteno, E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Gain switching of a Nd+3-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 671–673 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1797–1799 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 423–431 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. J. Zhang, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Gain-switched Tm3+-doped double-clad silica fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13, 1085–1089 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Stable gain-switched 845 nm pulse generation by a weak 1550 nm seed laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 249–251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. D. Jackson, B. C. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Sequence lasing in a gain-switched Yb3+, Er3+-doped silica double-clad fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1698–1703 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20872–20877 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Geng, Q. Wang, T. Luo, B. Case, S. Jiang, F. Amzajerdian, and J. Yu, “Single-frequency gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3795–3797 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Simakov, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and J. Haub, “Efficient, polarised, gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 19, 14949–14954 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Hollitt, N. Simakov, A. Hemming, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A linearly polarised, pulsed Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16285–16290 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 948–956 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18, 22964–22972 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched induced gain switching of a two-transition cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 13123–13128 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Creeden, P. A. Ketteridge, P. A. Budni, S. D. Setzler, Y. E. Young, J. C. McCarthy, K. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, E. P. Chicklis, and M. Jiang, “Mid-infrared ZnGep2 parametric oscillator directly pumped by a pulsed 2 μm Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 315–317 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. Creeden, P. A. Budni, and P. A. Ketteridge, “Pulsed Tm-doped fiber lasers for mid-IR frequency conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950X (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. D. Jackson, “High-power fiber lasers for the shortwave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768608 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 423–431 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched induced gain switching of a two-transition cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 13123–13128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hollitt, N. Simakov, A. Hemming, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A linearly polarised, pulsed Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16285–16290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Geng, Q. Wang, T. Luo, B. Case, S. Jiang, F. Amzajerdian, and J. Yu, “Single-frequency gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3795–3797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and J. Haub, “Efficient, polarised, gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 19, 14949–14954 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18, 22964–22972 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “High-power fiber lasers for the shortwave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Creeden, P. A. Budni, and P. A. Ketteridge, “Pulsed Tm-doped fiber lasers for mid-IR frequency conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950X (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20872–20877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1797–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

2001

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Zenteno, E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Gain switching of a Nd+3-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 671–673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agrez, V.

R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amzajerdian, F.

Araki, S.

H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennetts, S.

Blackmon, R. L.

N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blau, P.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

Carter, A.

Case, B.

Chen, Z.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

Cilip, C. M.

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Creeden, D.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, B.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, B. C.

S. D. Jackson, B. C. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Sequence lasing in a gain-switched Yb3+, Er3+-doped silica double-clad fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1698–1703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M. R.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, J.

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Giesberts, M.

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glick, Y.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P. S.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

Hansen, K. P.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haub, J.

Hemming, A.

Hoffmann, H.

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hollitt, S.

Hu, T.

Irby, P. B.

N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched induced gain switching of a two-transition cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 13123–13128 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 423–431 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “High-power fiber lasers for the shortwave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20872–20877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, B. C. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Sequence lasing in a gain-switched Yb3+, Er3+-doped silica double-clad fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1698–1703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 948–956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, S.

Ju, Y.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. L.

Katz, M.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ketteridge, P. A.

King, T. A.

S. D. Jackson, B. C. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Sequence lasing in a gain-switched Yb3+, Er3+-doped silica double-clad fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1698–1703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 948–956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 488–498.

Lancaster, D. G.

K. S. Wu, D. Ottaway, J. Munch, D. G. Lancaster, S. Bennetts, and S. D. Jackson, “Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 17, 20872–20877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, C.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lebiush, E.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Luo, T.

Mattsson, K. E.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J. C.

Munch, J.

Nafcha, Y.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakagami, H.

H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Noordegraaf, D.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Gain-switched CW fiber laser for improved supercontinuum generation in a PCF,” Opt. Express 19, 14883–14891 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Ottaway, D.

Petkovsek, R.

R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

Pollak, T. M.

Pollnau, M.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

Richardson, D. J.

Sabella, A.

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

Scott, N. J.

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Setzler, S. D.

Simakov, N.

Sintov, Y.

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Sloan, P.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Sorensen, S. T.

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18, 22964–22972 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

Traub, M.

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Z.

Wu, K. S.

Xu, J.

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18, 22964–22972 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yang, J.

J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yao, B. Q.

Young, Y. E.

Yu, J.

Yuang, C.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zawilski, K.

Zenteno, L. A.

Zhang, R.

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. J.

Zhao, J.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, R.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

Y. Tang and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

R. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Chen, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558 μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 779–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, R. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Modeling and characteristics of gain-switched diode-pumped Er-Yb codoped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1560–1567 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 435–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, and D. G. Lancaster, “Application and development of high-power and highly efficient silica-based fiber lasers operating at 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 567–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 893–895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

Y. Tang, F. Li, and J. Xu, “Narrow-pulse-width gain-switched thulium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped, linear-polarized, gain-switching operation of a Tm-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakagami, S. Araki, and H. Sakata, “Gain-switching pulse generation of Tm-doped fiber ring laser pumped with 1.6 μm laser diodes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 301–304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 423–431 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

B. C. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10 mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791 nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191, 315–321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, S. T. Sorensen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Zero-dispersion wavelength independent quasi-CW pumped supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Commun. 290, 170–174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. D. Jackson, “High-power fiber lasers for the shortwave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding, B. Dickinson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Development and application of fibre lasers for medical applications,” Proc. SPIE 4253, 144–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, R. L. Blackmon, and P. B. Irby, “A review of thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Creeden, P. A. Budni, and P. A. Ketteridge, “Pulsed Tm-doped fiber lasers for mid-IR frequency conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950X (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400I (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Petkovsek, V. Agrez, and F. Bammer, “Gain-switching of a fiber laser: experiment and a simple theoretical model,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77210I (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Giesberts, J. Geiger, M. Traub, and H. Hoffmann, “Novel design of a gain-switched diode-pumped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sintov, M. Katz, P. Blau, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, and Y. Nafcha, “A frequency doubled gain switched Yb3+-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 719529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 488–498.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic setup of an all-fiber gain-switched fiber laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustration of the difference between gain-switching and Q-switching. The upper panel shows the evolution of their upper laser level populations during a single pulse generation, and the lower panel shows the corresponding emitting characteristics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left panel is the simplified energy diagram of Tm3+ ions; different pump schemes and their corresponding transitions are represented by black arrows, and the red arrow is the laser transition. Right panel is the temporal features of a numerical simulation on a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser. To demonstrate the detailed information of the pulses induced by the pump wavelengths at 1053 and 1550 nm, we enlarged the content inside the dashed line box.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal characteristics of a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with a hybrid pump scheme: a pulsed 1.5-μm pump source and a CW 793 nm LD pump. (a) and (b) The situations when the launched CW pump power is at a low and a high level, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Supercontinuum induced by gain-switched pulses. A 10 m single-mode fiber was spliced to the gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser, and a supercontinuum spanning over 200 nm can be observed with an average power spectral density of >30mWnm1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Reported Output Features of the Gain-Switched Fiber Lasers

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tp=2(ninf)lnicnt[1+ln(ni/nt)]c,
N4t=W14N1N4τ4,
N3t=W13N1+N4τ4N3τ3,
N2t=W12N1+N3τ3N2τ2W21N2,
N1=NTmN4N3N2,

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